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* NBME#2 block 1 Q1-----------Q50
  maryam2009 - 03/10/11 07:46
  Please choose and answer the questions in order.Thank you  
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* Re:NBME#2 block 1 Q1-----------Q50
  amusmle - 03/10/11 10:31
  Q1. B
Thank you goforusmle

Q2. G
B- basophil
F- red blood cell

Q 3. B
Meynert- Ach
raphe nuclei- 5HT
ventral tegmentum- Dopamine
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* Re:NBME#2 block 1 Q1-----------Q50
  maryam2009 - 03/10/11 18:38

The Eustachian tube (or auditory tube or pharyngotympanic tube) is a tube that links the pharynx to the middle ear.
Normally, the Eustachian tube is closed, which helps prevent the inadvertent contamination of the middle ear space by the normal secretions found in the back of the nose. A dysfunctional Eustachian tube that is always open is called a "patulous" Eustachian tube. Patients with this rare condition are plagued by chronic ear infections. A much more common problem is a failure of the Eustachian tube to effectively regulate air pressure. Partial or complete blockage of the Eustachian tube can cause sensations of popping, clicking, and ear fullness and occasionally moderate to severe ear pain. Young children may describe the popping sensation as "a tickle in my ear.


A derivative of PABA {para-aminobenzoic acid)

NSAIDS are drugs with analgesic and antipyretic (fever-reducing) effects and which have, in higher doses, anti-inflammatory effects.

Clostridium difficile produces a cytotoxin,an exotoxin that kills enterocytes ,causing pseudomembranous colitis

Treatment: Metronidazole

After a first treatment with metronidazole or vancomycin, Clostridium difficile recurs in about 20% of people.
C difficile colitis results from a disruption of the normal bacterial flora of the colon, colonization with C difficile, and release of toxins that cause mucosal inflammation and damage.

The chief risk factor for the disease is prior exposure to antibiotics. The most common antibiotics implicated in C difficile colitis include cephalosporins (especially second and third generation), ampicillin/amoxicillin, and clindamycin. Less commonly implicated antibiotics are the macrolides (ie, erythromycin, clarithromycin, azithromycin) and other penicillins

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* Re:NBME#2 block 1 Q1-----------Q50
  amusmle - 03/10/11 19:26
  Hi maryam2009! I thought you quit since I saw no post, but I'm glad you're back

Q8. A
In asbestosis feruginous bodies are characteristic on the photomicrograph

Q9. C

Q10. E
CCl4--->centrilobular necrosis, fatty chance in liver
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* Re:NBME#2 block 1 Q1-----------Q50
  maryam2009 - 03/10/11 20:08
  Hi amusmle
I was busy but I'll try to finish it till tomorrow,of course with the help of other members who visit this block frequently ** .I'm glad to see you too,thank you for posting the answers.
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* Re:NBME#2 block 1 Q1-----------Q50
  amusmle - 03/10/11 20:22
  are you in US?

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* Re:NBME#2 block 1 Q1-----------Q50
  maryam2009 - 03/10/11 21:06
  Yes I am in NY  
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* Re:NBME#2 block 1 Q1-----------Q50
  amusmle - 03/10/11 21:14
  Q11. ?

Q 12. H
Capsaicin has been shown to reduce the levels of Substance P probably by reducing the number of C-fibre nerves or causing these nerves to be more tolerant. Thus, Capsaicin is clinically used as an analgesic and an inflammatory agent to induce pain associated with arthritis and many types of neuralgia.
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* Re:NBME#2 block 1 Q1-----------Q50
  maryam2009 - 03/10/11 21:47
Transposition of great vessels due to the failure of the aorticopulmonary septum to spiral....septation
Aorta leaves RV anteriorly and pulmonary trunk leaves LV posteriorly.....seperation of systemic and pulmonary circulation
not compatible with life unless a shunt is present to allow adequet mixing of blood...VSD,PDA,patent foramen ovale.without sergical correction.......infants die within the first few months of life
most common in Diabetic mothers
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* Re:NBME#2 block 1 Q1-----------Q50
  maryam2009 - 03/11/11 01:02

A simple transposon is an insertion sequence (IS element) that contains multiple protein-coding genes between the short, inverted, repeated sequences that flank its gene coding region while
a complex transposon is two simple transposons with some other genes carried in between them.In a composite transposon (also known as a "complex transposon"), two insertion sequences flank one or more accessory genes

An inverted repeat (or IR) is a sequence of nucleotides that is the reversed complement of another sequence further downstream.
For example, 5'---GACTGC....GCAGTC---3'. When no nucleotides intervene between the sequence and its downstream complement, it is called a palindrome. Inverted repeats define the boundaries in transposons. Inverted repeats also indicate regions capable of self-complementary base pairing

Transposons are sequences of DNA that can move or transpose themselves to new positions within the genome of a single cell. The mechanism of transposition can be either "copy and paste" or "cut and paste". Transposition can create phenotypically significant mutations and alter the cell's genome size.

1.A group of genes that is regulated by the same regulatory molecule. The genes of a regulon share a common regulatory element binding site or promoter. The genes comprising a regulon may be located non-contiguously in the genome.

A plasmid
is a DNA molecule that is separate from, and can replicate independently of, the chromosomal DNA. They are double stranded and, in many cases, circular. Plasmids usually occur naturally in bacteria, but are sometimes found in eukaryotic organisms

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* Re:NBME#2 block 1 Q1-----------Q50
  drona99 - 03/11/11 01:41
  i answered q 11 by exclusion --this bact genetic a bit nt yet clear for me yet but im working on it .
Answer is AA --among all choises only transponse are the one which have their own movement thats why they also called as ''jumping genes''
from kaplan
1-are mobile genetic elements [dna] that can move themselves or copy from one molecule of dna to other [jumping genes]
2-have sequence of indirect reppeats of bases on each end
3-have atleast 1 gene for a transposes enzyme involved in movement
4-may insert anywhere the transposes recognises the specific sequence of nucleotides

1-the main difference from transposons and IS is that IS has promotors ;transcription and translation-termination signals

2-have only one gene for transposase
3=have terminal indirect repeats
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