METIS CULTURE 1824-1827



The French had opened a door to a continent and the Metis had humanely tamed it.

The Metis Empire was greater than the Roman Empire, providing clear evidence of a superior culture
that can co-ordinate an Empire without blood shed through sharing and caring.



 10/22/2011

METIS HISTORY 1828-1832

METIS HISTORY Return to METIS 1800-1849 index

METIS HISTORY Return to MAIN METIS index

DIRECTORY Return to MAIN HISTORY index

 



The frequent flooding of the Red River drove many farmers from their homes.
They survived the winter by digging cellars in the prairies, roofed with sod.


 

1824  

The period of 1823-24 is considered the years of the Holy War at Mackinac.  The Roman Catholics and the Presbyterians are conducting a religious war that is embarrassing the Christian community.   The army, to contain the rivalry, brought in a Episcopalian minister as their chaplain and this appeared to settle the war.  The violence between Irish Catholics and Protestants with fights and riots, however, would go on for decades.

Madeline Bailly, Ottawa/Ojibwa Metis, b-1824 Grand River, daughter Francis Bailly Ottawa Metis, b-1805 and Ojibwa squaw (iskwao) whom the chief Ka-she-way says is his cousin, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.  (Squaw is a very insulting English word.)

Albany, birth (III)-John Beads, Metis (1824-1859) son (II)-John Beads, Metis, b-1795 Rupert's Land, employed HBC (1814-1856), married about 1821, Albany, Margaret Indian or Metis (1800-1856).

Angus Bethune (1783-1858) of NWC (1804-1821) Partner and HBC (1824-1832) Chief Factor, Sault Ste, Marie, Lake Superior (1824-1832).  At White Earth (1810-1813) near Smoky Lake (Alberta) may have a daughter with a native woman 
    Jennet Bethume Metis married February 6, Red River a (I)-Donald McDonald (1795-1860) of HBC (1813-1826) who was in Red River in 1824

(II)-Nicolas Garry Bird, Metis b-1824 Red River son  (I)-James Bird (1773-1856) and Oo-menahomiski Indian woman; Nicolas traveled to Columbia District in 1841 likely to attend at his sister or stepsisters death.

Angelick Boadwine b-1798, arrived 1833 St. Ignace wife Joseph Beaudwin, Ojibwa Metis, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.

Joseph Boadwine, Ojibwa Metis, b-1824, arrived 1833 St. Ignace son Joseph Beaudwin, Ojibwa Metis and Angelick Boadwine, Ojibwa Metis, b-1798, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.

Peter Boureseau, Ottawa Metis, b-1824 Mackinac, son Louis Boureseau Sr. but not living with him, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.

Swan River, birth Peter Brass, Metis son Peter Brass Sr. Metis, b-1794 Hudson Bay, and Susan Roy or Comtois, Metis.    

Jim (James) Bridger (1804-1881) a mountain man described the Great Salt Lake and Yellowstone, in Mexican Territory (Utah) but few people believed him.  He thought the Great Salt Lake was part of the Pacific Ocean.  Some suggest he was the first to see the Great Salt Lake but the Spanish likely preceded him in the (1776-1777) expedition to Utah.

Charlotte Cadotte, Ojibwa Metis b-1824, arrived Saulte Ste Marie 1831 daughter Hines and Angelique Cadotte, Ojibwa Metis, b-1798, listed March 28, 1836 treaty. 

Samuel Campbell, Ojibwa Metis, born 1824 Mackinac son John Campbell, Ojibwa Metis and White Woman, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.

Reubin Chapman, Ojibwa Metis, b-1824, arrived 1826 Mackinac, child Bela Chapman Sr. and Mary Chapman Ojibwa Metis b-1806, listed March 28, 1836, treaty.  

Indian Lake, Churchill, District: birth (II)-John Charles Jr., Metis, son (I)-John Charles, b-1784 and (II)-Jane Auld, Metis (1794-1841) 

Henry Collie Metis b-1824 Moose Factory joined HBC (1833-1850) and in Columbia district (1840-1850)

Betsy Constin, Ottawa Metis, b-1824 Mackinac, daughter Pierre Constin, deceased, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.

(I)-John Corcoran d-1827 of Ireland came to York Factory as HBC employee (1818-1855), Brother (I)-Patrick Corcoran d-1787 Quebec, (I)-Thomas Corcoran, (I)-Richard Corcoran, (I)-Edward Corcoran.  He had one child at Sault Ste. Marie b-1827, Mary b-1821 Micawbanish, New Brunswick, living with his brother (I)-Thomas Corcoran (1794-1865) Moose District, married (II)-Thomas Wiegand aka Wiggand, Metis b-1795/1800 and living Albany 1855.  He retired to England 1826, no mention of his wife but likely Indian or Metis.  He was assigned Pays Plat, Lake Superior (1824-1825) and Sault Ste. Marie, Lake Superior (1825-1826)

Severn: birth (II)-Elizabeth Cromartie, Metis (1824-1837) daughter (I)-John Cromartie (1792-1878) Orkney, employed HBC (1812-1870), 1st married about 1823 Elizabeth Indian Woman; 2nd married 1839 (II)-Catherine Park, Metis, (1816/17-1860) daughter (I)-John Park (1768/71-1847) and Margaret Metisse (1796-1853)

Red River, baptism, (II)-Peter Fidler, Metis son (II)-Charles Fidler, Metis b-1798 and likely Metis or Indian girl.  I suspect this is the Peter son (I)-Peter Fidler (1769-1822) bapt 1820?

Charles Forrest (1810-851), HBC (1825-1851) was assigned to Fort Vancouver 1824 to 1835.  Actually assigned Fort Vancouver 1839

(III)-Joseph Gladman Jr. Metis b-about 1824, New Brunswick House, Moose District son  (II)-Joseph Gladman, Metis (1796-1875), employed HBC (1814-1867) and (II)-Margaret Auld, Metis (1794-1857) daughter (I)-William Auld (1770-1830).

(II)-Richard Grant Metis (1793-1862) employed NWC 1816 HBC (1816-1850) son (I)-William Grant and Margaret Laframboise Metis is assigned York Factory (1823-1827): married 1824, York Factory, Mary Anne Berland, aka (Breland Burleigh), Metis. daughter, Pierre Breland aka Berland (1760-1829) a freetrader  and Louise Belly, Indian. 2nd marriage Hellen Kittson McDonald Metis 

Alice Gravereat, Ojibwa Metis, b-1824 Mackinac, daughter Henry Gravereat and Charlotte Ojibwa Metis b-1790, listed March 28, 1836.

Upper Red River: baptism, 1824, (II)-Anne Henderson, Metis, (II)-Jane Henderson, Metis, & (II)-Peter Henderson, Metis, children of (I)-Peter Henderson and Charlotte Yorstone, a Cree Woman, union churched March 2, 1829 Red River.

Margaret Hubert, Ojibwa Metis, b-1824 St. Ignace daughter Jack Hubert, Ojibwa Metis and Ojibwa Metis Woman, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.

(I)-James Inkster Sr. (1805-1865) joined HBC (1824-1830) married 1830 (II)-Elizabeth Sutherland Metis daughter (I)-James Sutherland Sr. (1778-1844) and Jane Flett (1785-1835) an Indian woman
    (II)-James Inkster Jr. Metis bapt 1831
    (II)-Elizabeth Inkster Metis bapt 1833
    (II)-Jane Inkster Metis bapt 1836
    (II)-James Inkster Metis bapt 1838
    (II)-Margaret Inkster Metis bapt 1838+
    (II)-George Inkster Metis bapt 1843
    (II)-Mary  Inkster Metis bapt 1845
    (II)-Sarah Inkster Metis bapt 1847
    (II)-Isabella Ann Inkster Metis bapt 1850
    (II)-Roderick William Inkster Metis bapt 1851, d-1854
    (II)-William Magnus Inkster Metis bapt 1852

(I)-George Irvine (1803/05-1870+) Joined HBC (1824-1833) York Factory, Red River, 
1st married 1833 (II)-Colette Fidler Metis (1817-1842) daughter (I)-Peter Fidler (1769-1822) and Mary Swampy Cree Indian (1771-1826)
    (II)-Matilda Irvine Metis b-1834
    (II)-Elanora Irvine Metis b-1836
    (II)-Maria Irvine Metis b-1838
    (II)-Martha Irvine Metis b-1840
2nd married 1851 Jane Cockran (1834-1890) a treaty Indian born Oxford House, Keewatin
    (II)-Issac Irvine Metis bapt-1852
    (II)-Jane Mary Irvine Metis (bapt-1854-1854)
    (II)-Joseph Irvine Metis bapt-1855
    (II)-George Irvine Metis b-1862
    (II)-William Irvine Metis bapt-1864
    (II)-Emma Jane Irvine Metis b-1866
    (II)-Margaret Irvine Metis bapt-1869
    (II)-John George Irvine Metis bapt-1871
    (II)-Jane Mary Irvine Metis b-1871
    (II)-Cornelious Irvine Metis bapt-1873
    (II)-Mary Elizabeth Irvine Metis bapt-1876

Catherine Lasaw, Ojibwa Metis, b-1824, arrived 1834 Mackinac, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.  Rejected as Whiskey says they are not relatives to these Indians.

Catherine Lasley, Ojibwa Metis, b-1824, Mackinac, daughter Samuel Lasley Jr. and his squaw (iskwao) wife, who is sister to Shaw-en-e-ge-sick, chief of the Bay de Noque Band, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.  (Squaw is a very insulting English word.)

Red River, birth (II)-Margaret Logan, Metis daughter (I)-Robert Logan employed NWC (1801-1814) Sault Ste Marie and Mary Saulteaux Indian woman d-1838

Alexis Lozon, Ottawa Metis, b-1824 Mackinac, son Joseph Lozon, Ottawa Metis, and Nancy Ottawa Metis, b-1806, Mackinac, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.

(II)-Alexander McDonell Metis born Indian Country d-1847 son (I)-Allan McDonell (1778-1859); joined HBC (1826-1845) married a daughter John McKay and had 2 metis children  

Mary Anne McDonald, Metis b-1824 Sault Ste Marie daughter McDonald and Metis mother from Grande Portage, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.  Rejected as mother from Grande Portage.

(III)-Edward McKay Metis, (1824-1884) son (II)-John Richards McKay Metis, (1792-1877/87) and (II)-Harriet Ballenden Metis (1795/1800-1854); joined HBC (1837-1882)

Charles McKenzie aka MacKenzie (1778-1855) employed NWC (1802-1821) and HBC (1821-1852) married Mary McKay and had Hector Aeneas McKenzie; Catherine McKenzie and Margaret McKenzie who married a MacDonald.

Joseph Martin, Ottawa/Ojibwa Metis, b-1824,  St. Ignace, son Louis Martin, Ojibwa Metis and Ottawa Woman, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.

Louise Bernard Moreau, Metis b-1824, Red River des Metis Settlement son  Jean Baptiste Moreau French Canadian and Charlotte Lafeville aka (LaFeuille - Gariepy - Vallie - Vallee etc.) Metis: married 1837 St. Boniface to Pierre Bernard. 

Archangel Morris, Ojibwa Metis, b-1824 Sault Ste Marie daughter Nicolas Morris, Pawnee Metis, b-1802 Sault Ste Marie and Josette Morris, Ojibwa Metis b-1803 Sault Ste Marie, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.  

Thomas Morrison Metis (1824-1894) born Albany, joined HBC (1839-1894) Moose, married before 1875 and had 2 Metis children.

Angelick Nowlin (Nolin), Ojibwa Metis, b-1824, arrived 1826 Sault Ste Marie, daughter Louis Nowlin (Nolin), Ojibwa Metis, b-1788 arrived 1812 Sault Ste Marie, and Mary Ojibwa Metis b-1802 Sault Ste Marie, listed March 28., 1836 treaty.

Jean Baptiste Nowlin (Nolin), Ojibwa Metis, b-1824 Sault Ste Marie, son Michael Nowlin (Nolin) a Pawnee Metis, b-1795, and  Ojibwa woman, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.  

Sophia Oakes, Ojibwa Metis, b-1824, arrived 1835 Grand River, daughter Charles H. Oakes and pure Ojibwa Indian woman from Sault Ste Marie, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.

(II)-John Park, Metis born likely Red River, baptized 1824 likely Red River son (I)-John Park (1768/71-1847) and Margaret Metisse, b-1796, died February 19, 1853, Red River.

James Ohio Pattie (1800-1833) of Kentucky claims to have traveled to New Mexico 1824, California 1828 and New Orleans 1930.   He claims to have traveled the south rim of the Grand Canyon in the 1920's.  He was a teller of tall tail so some question his accounts.

John Baptiste Payan, Ottawa Metis, b-1824 St. Ignace, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.  Abandoned by Father Payan, Ottawa Metis and Mother Ojibwa Metis died, lives & ought to live with Charles St. Ondre. 

Joseph Pin, Metis, a HBC boatman, is at Snake River 1824 and Fort Langley 1829 married about 1838 Marguerite Kwehessest Pen d'Oreille (1806-1851).

Louison Robinson, Ojibwa Metis, b-1824 St. Ignace, son Francis Robertson, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.  Grand child of the chief at Iroquois Point.

William Rouleau, Ojibwa Metis, b-1824, arrived 1826 Sault Ste Marie, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.  Reject as descended from Canadian Indians.

Charles Roussain, Sault Metis b-1797 is employed by American Fur Company (1824-1829)

Jedediah Strong Smith (1799-1831 for the Rocky Mountain Fur Company led a trading party through the South Pass, Wyoming.

Antoine Snaikell?, Ojibwa Metis, b-1824, arrived 1826 Mackinac, abandoned by father and Ojibwa mother dead, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.

Moose Factory, birth, (II)-David Stewart Jr, Metis b-1824, son (I)-David Ramsay Stewart (Stuart) b-1786 and (II)-Harriet Vincent, Metis b-1798:  (I)-David Sr. abandoned his pregnant wife and two born children and returned to Scotland in 1823.

Red River (White Horse Plains), marriage Andre Trottier Trotchie Metis died April 24, 1874 son Andre Trottier b-1757 Montreal and Louise Chippewa Indian; married 1824 Red River (White Horse Plains) Marguerite Paquette St Denis.

At Red River both the Church and the H.B.C agreed to encourage the Metis to quit the Pembina and move closer to Fort Douglas to discourage illicit dealings in furs with the Americans and to become a valuable wall of defense in case the Dakota attacked the H.B.C. colony.  Bishop Provencher gave his support with this policy shift.

Upper Mississippi District, birth, Henriette S. Campbell, Metis daughter Scott Campbell, Metis (1790's-1851) and Dakota woman; married Benjamin Aitken Dyomme.

Sault Ste. Marie, arrived, Mary Piquette, Ojibwa Metis, b-1807 wife Charles Piquette, Ojibwa Metis,  listed March 28, 1836 treaty.

Jennet Piquette, Ojibwa Metis, b-1824 Sault Ste Marie daughter Joseph Piquette Sr. a Canadian who ran away and Angeliick Ojibway, Ojibwa Metis, b-1800 Sault Ste Marie, epouse Gitsheo Ojibway an Indian, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.  

(I)-Mark Prince b-1761 and his daughters (II)-Faith Prince, Metis, b-1802 and (II)-Jane Prince, Metis b-1808, departed Moose Factory for Europe.  Jane returned in 1828 for her wedding.

Red River, marriage (I)-Peter Quinn of Ireland living St. Peter, Iowa, died August 18, 1862 Redwood Ferry married Red River before moving to Fort Snelling, Minnesota in 1824 to Mary Louise Findley a Metis Cree Woman.  Quinn was killed August 18, 1862 by the Dakota Sioux.

Nancy Rodd, Ojibwa Metis, b-1824, arrived 1828 Mackinac, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.  Rejected as mother a Saginaw Indian

Jedediah Strong Smith (1799-1831) rediscovered the South Pass, Wyoming, the key to the overland routes to California and Oregon.  Charles Keemle in 1826 wrote, it has been proved that large bodies of overland expeditions can now be made to remote regions. 

By this year the Montreal firm of McGillivrays, Thain and Company virtually disintegrated with the death of (II)-William McGillivray, Metis (1764-1825), the illness of Thomas Thain, and the falling into disuse of the Montreal trade routes to the west.

Alexander Ross of Red River explored the Salmon River Country of Idaho.

Jedediah Strong Smith (1799-1831) explored the Salmon River Country, Idaho but was not part of the Alexander Ross expedition of the same year.  He said he visited the Hudson Bay Company fort at the Lewis Forks on the Columbia where the fort contained 80 men.

The first wave of settlers to Michigan arrived at Sylan, Washtenaw County.  Lymann Warren bought out his father-in-law and became Chief Factor, until 1838, of the American Fur Company, and La Pointe, the Metis settlement, became the company‚Äôs major post, shifting focus from the Sault Ste Marie Post.

Esther Terrien, Ottawa Metis, b-1824 St. Ignace, daughter Isaac Terrien and Ottawa Woman (Angelique),  this is second husband, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.

Williamstown birth George Thompson Metis died August 28, 1824 son David Thompson (1770-1857) and Charlotte Small b-1785 Metis.

This year a number of Metis and French Canadian Freemen moved from the Pembina to Red River, the White Horse Plains (Grandtown) and into the deserted Orkney Village area. Others located at St Boniface.

(I)-James Curtis Bird, born 1773 son James Bird and Elizabeth Curtis, who married Cumberland House Elizabeth Oo-menahomisk,  retired to Red River and was in charge of Edmonton House from 1799-1816.   It is noteworthy that he gave the surname Curtis to his children.  Upon the death of his country wife, he married another woman, a Mrs Mary Lowman, which resulted in two children, Elizabeth Margaret and Curtis James.  Bird totally ignored his Metis children by his first country wife(s?) and focused his last will on his last wife's children.   

Cuthbert Grant (1793-1854), a Scottish Metis, claimed to have created a separate settlement at White Horse Plains a.k.a. St. Francois Xavier called Grand Town, a Metis settlement, also referred to as Grant's Village of the Red River. It is claimed that 80-100 Metis families settled there this spring to farm.   The Metis had called it the White Horse Plains for the past forty years. This is where Lawrence Garneau (1840-1921) would live when he arrived in the 1860's.  One of the most disconcerting things about the European culture is their insatiable desire to set foot on other people's efforts, change the name and call it there own.  The Ontario English would claim credit for creating Red River in 1812; as though nothing of importance happened before that time.  Europeans, and especially the British, must be suffering as a group of people with a major cultural inferiority complex which they try to hide behind a stiff upper lip.

Lyman Marcus Warren became Chief Factor La Pointe.

Between 1824 and1830, the Canadian fur trader, (III)-Peter Skene Ogden (1790/94-1854), worked the areas of Idaho, Utah, Nevada, Montana and the Oregon.

Sonego or Nahnebahwequay (meaning upright woman), an Ojibwa and later named Catherine Sutton born 1824 Credit River flats UC, died September 26, 1865 Sarawak Township, Canada married William Sutton an Englashman and lost her Indian annuity money owing her and her Metis children.  She obtained a private audience with Queen Victoria in 1860 but concluded the English idea of justice is that might is right.   

The Hudson Bay Company built Fort Vancouver on the north bank of the Columbia River, 100 miles from the ocean.  Chief Factor was John McLoughlin.  This became the headquarters for 22 trading posts.

February 9:  Cahokia, marriage (V)-Jean Baptiste Vaudry son (IV)-Antoine Vaudry born May 17, 1747 and (IV)-Anne Agnes Bourassa et Brassard, b-1757; married Cecile Clermont.

May: Churchill Department, birth (III)-Jesse, Metis, daughter (II)-Roderick McKenzie Jr. (1791-1830), and (II)-Sally Sutherland, Metis daughter of (I)-James Sutherland (1778-1844) and Indian Woman; married 1832, John Clarke.. 

May 1:  birth Mary Smith, Indian, died May 1, 1900 Sault Ste Marie, Michigan

May 23; Red River  baptism/birth (III)-John Whitford, Metis son (II)-James Whitford, Jr. Metis and Mary Spence; 

July:   Findlay, a Canadian named Barrette and two others are killed at Lake Pepin by an Ojibwa war party of 29 warriors.

July 14: Image Plain (Manitoba?), marriage (I)-Alexander Work, Orkney (1785-1850) arrived 1806 HBC married Isabella Indian

July 30: Red River, baptism (II)-Jane Work, Metis daughter (I)-Alexander Work, Orkney (1785-1850) and Isabella Indian; married January 26, 1837 John Cunningham

July 30: Red River, baptism (II)-William Work, Metis son (I)-Alexander Work, Orkney (1785-1850) and Isabella Indian

August 1: Moose Factory, birth (II)-Charlotte Swanson, Metis daughter (I)-William Swanson (1794-1865) and (II)-Anne (Nancy) Brown, Metis d-before 1835. 

August 15: Upper Red River baptism (III)-Mary Favel, Metis daughter (II)-Thomas Favel (Favell) (1780/81-1848), Metis and Sally a Cree woman

August 24: baptism (II)-Donald McKenzie, Metis son (I)-Donald McKenzie (1783-1851) and half breed woman probably Mary McKay daughter Alexander McKay.

September 10:  York Factory, (I)-Donald Sutherland (1778-1872) of Clyne, Sutherlandshire, Scotland, sailed for Orkney, with two of his children both under 12 years who were baptized August 12, 1821, namely (II)-William Sutherland, Metis, (II)-Isabella Sutherland, Metis.  No mention is made of his Indian wife, the usual practice is to give her to another HBC employee or to send her back to her people.

September 15:  (I)-George Linton (1800-1835), of HBC (1821-1834), 18 men and nine carts left for Fort Pelly on the Assiniboine River Swan River District north of Kamsack (Saskatchewan).  Its noteworthy that many forts were built on the upper Assiniboine during the 1790's and early 1800's, namely: Fort Alexandria, Carlton House, Peter Grant's House, an XY Fort, Albany House, Fort Hibernia, and Marlboro House. 

September 26:  Red River birth (II)-Elizabeth Wishart, Metis, daughter (I)-Thomas Wishart b-1797 Scotland and Barbara Spence Metis.

October 4:  Mexico became known as a Republic.

October 27: Red River, marriage likely 1819 but churched 1824, (II)-Joseph Cook, Metis (1788-1848) with HBC (1803-1824), son (I)-William Hemmings Cook, (1766-1846) with HBC (1786-1819) and Mary an Indian Woman: married Catherine Sinclair daughter William Sinclair Sr..  Recorded children are as follows:

        (III)-William Cook, Metis, (III)-Sally (Sarah) Cook, Metis, (III)-Henry, Elizabeth Metis, and (III)-Mary Cook, Metis all baptized April 19, 1825, Red River       
        (III)-Caroline Cook, Metis, baptized July 9, 1826, Red River 
        (III)-Thomas Cook, Metis, baptized May 6, 1828, Red River 
        (III)-Joseph Cook. Metis baptized August 25, 1829, Red River 
        (III)-Philip Cook, Metis, baptized March 6, 1831, Red River 
        (III)-John Cook, Metis, baptized June 2, 1833, Red River 
        (III)-Catherine Cook, Metis, baptized January 28, 1835, Red River 
        (III)-James Cook, Metis Baptized September 30, 1836, Red River 
        (III)-Mathew Cook, Metis baptized February 13, 1839, Red River 
        (III)-Edward Cook, Metis baptized January 6, 1841, Red River  

November, birth Jean Baptiste Moreau, Metis born November, 1824 son  Jean Baptiste Moreau French Canadian and Charlotte Lafeville aka (LaFeuille - Gariepy - Vallie - Vallee etc.) Metis: married to Francois Colombe 

November:  Gaspard Louis Grenon, aka Gourneau, Metis, born November 1824 died after 1915 son Joseph George Guernon, aka Gorneau, Guernon, & Gernon, Metis, b-1795 La Pointe, Wisconsin, died after 1854 and Angelique Folle-Avoine; married January 23, 1849, Pembina, Minnesota Territory, Genevieve Allard, b-1831/32, d-after 1915, daughter Pierre Allard and Louise Vivier.

1825  

Harry Ashman, Ojibwa Metis, b-1825, arrived 1830 Sault Ste Marie son Samual Ashman, Mo-ga-son-a-qua of St. Marie, mother is his cousin, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.

Albany, birth (III)-Margaret Beads, Metis b-about 1825, baptized November 23, 1838, Red River daughter (II)-John Beads, Metis, b-1795 Rupert's Land, employed HBC (1814-1856), and Margaret Indian or Metis (1800-1856).

North West birth Marie Berthelet, Metis daughter Toussaint Berthelet aka Savoyard dit Berthelet, Savoyard, b-1780, and Marguerite Saulteux; married Louis Larocque

Isabella Boadwine, Ojibwa Metis, b-1825, arrived 1833 St. Ignace daughter Joseph Beaudwin, Ojibwa Metis and Angelick Boadwine, Ojibwa Metis, b-1798, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.

Fort Pelly, Swan River, birth Sarah Brass, Metis daughter Peter Brass Sr. Metis, b-1794 Hudson Bay, and Susan Roy or Comtois, Metis.    

Mary Cadotte, Ojibwa Metis, b-1825, living 1836 Sault Ste Marie, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.  Rejected as descendent of a Canadian tribe.

(III)-James (John?) Calder Metis b-1825 claims to be son of John Calder but I suspect he is son (II)-Horation Nelson Calder Metis (1807-1885) who is the son of (I)-John Calder.  James maybe the same man charged with homicide in Peace River District in 1848 and released on bond in 1849.  Joined HBC (1846-1853) Athabasca and Red River, married 1846 Maria Gibson
    (IV)-William Calder Metis b-1849 
    (IV)-Marguerite Calder Metis b-1853
    (IV)-John James Calder Metis bapt 1855 died 1856
    (IV)-Maria Anne Calder Metis b-1856, bapt 1857
    (IV)-Robert Calder Metis bapt 1859
    (IV)-Mary Jane Calder Metis b-1861
    (IV)-Betsy Calder Metis bapt 1861
    (IV)-Mary Jane Calder Metis bapt 1863
    (IV)-George Calder Metis b-1864 

Birth Fort Manuel, Missouri Lisette Charbonneau, Metis, daughter Toussaint Charbonneau (1759-1843) and a Shoshoni girl named Sakakawea (Sacajawea) aka Janey, (1788-1825?) sister of Sacagawea (1789-1812) interpreter of the Louis and Clark expedition. 

Nelson House, Churchill, District: birth (II)-William Charles, Metis, son (I)-John Charles, b-1784 and (II)-Jane Auld, Metis (1794-1841) 

Jean Baptiste Collin (Colin) Metis b-1825 Indian Country HBC (1850-1871) Lake Superior.  Likely brother Joseph Collin Metis b-1818 Indian Country, joined HBC (1839-1849) Lake Superior.   Maybe related to Nancy Collins below?

Nancy Collins, Ojibwa Metis, b-1825, arrived 1826 Mackinac, son of Collins Metis listed March 28, 1836 treaty.  Rejected for script as mother a British Indian. 

Albany, baptism (III)-James Daniel, Metis son (II)-Jacob Daniel Metis (1792-1870), and  (II)-Marguerite Goodwin, Metis (1796-1881) 

Albany, baptism (III)-Marguerite Daniel, Metis daughter (II)-Jacob Daniel Metis (1792-1870), and  (II)-Marguerite Goodwin, Metis (1796-1881) 

Martens Falls, Albany River, birth, (III)-William Daniel, Metis, baptized November 9, 1832 Red River, son (II)-Griffiths (Griffith) Daniel, Metis, (183/90-1869) employed HBC (1800-1830) and Indian Woman

Martens Falls, Albany River, birth, (III)-Jacob Daniel, Metis, baptized November 9, 1832 Red River, died May 12, 1838, son (II)-Griffiths (Griffith) Daniel, Metis, (183/90-1869) employed HBC (1800-1830) and Indian Woman

Jean Baptiste Desjardones Metis (1825-1856) of Red River joined HBC (1842-1856) Columbia District.

William Dingley, Ojibwa Metis, b-1825 Mackinac, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.  Rejected as mother from La Pointe tribe.  William bound to the mission.

(III)-George Gladman, Metis b-about 1825, New Brunswick House, Moose District son  (II)-Joseph Gladman, Metis (1796-1875), employed HBC (1814-1867) and (II)-Margaret Auld, Metis (1794-1857) daughter (I)-William Auld (1770-1830).

Harriet Gibson, Ojibwa Metis, b-1825 Mackinac daughter Robert Gibson, Metis and Electa Gibson, Ojibwa Metis, b-1827, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.

Simon Gornow (Gornor), Ojibwa Metis b-1825 Sault Ste Marie son Louis Gornow (Gornor), Ojibwa Metis b-1790 and  Archangel Gornow (Gornor) aka Cadotte, Ojibwa Metis, b-1798,  listed March 28, 1836 treaty.  Mother is likely Say-shaw-ne-nie see marriage 1815?

Joseph Gourneau, Metis, b-1825, Red Lake, Minnesota Territory, died December 22, 1912 son Joseph George Guernon, aka Gorneau, Guernon, & Gernon, Metis, b-1795 La Pointe, Wisconsin, died after 1854 son Joseph Guernon and Nowanankkee b-1794;

Henry Graham, Ottawa Metis, b-1825 St. Ignace, son John Graham and Ottawa Woman, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.

York Factory, birth, (III)-Richard Grant, Metis son (II)-Richard Grant (1793-1862) employed HBC (1816-1850) and Mary Anne Berland, aka (Breland Burleigh), Metis.

Joseph Laverduke (Laverdure) Metis born NWT joined NWC (1816-1817) & HBC (1818-1837) Athabasca, Saskatchewan, Norway House and Lac La Plue.

Red River, baptism,  (II)-James Gunn, Metis  son (I)-Donald Gunn (1797-1878) employed HBC (1813-1822) out of York Factory; married a half-breed woman before 1821 York Factory and 2nd marriage January 17, 1826, Image Plains, (III)-Margaret Swain, Metis, bapt 1827 daughter (II)-James Swain, Metis (1799-1887): married Mary.

Waswainpi, birth (II)-Isobella Sopluis Hardesty, (1825-1913) Metis daughter (I)-Richard Hardisty (1792-1865) employed HBC (1817-1861) and (II)-Margaret Sutherland, Metis (1802-1876); married 1851 James Grant, divorced, 2nd marriage 1853 Donald Alexander Smith.

(II)-John Hodgson Jr. Metis b-1792 employed HBC (1809-1843) out of Albany went on the Franklin Expedition of (1825-1827)

John Hutchinson married Mademoiselle Censols who had eight previous husbands, being abandon by those Hudson Bay Company Men.

(I)-Thomas Isbister with wife (II)-Mary Kennedy, Metis, b-1807 daughter (I)-Alexander Kennedy (1781-1832) and Mary Aggathas Isbister Metis Cree (1782-1863) and 2 children (II)-Alexander Isbister, Metis & (II)-Caroline Isbaster, Metis  looked after (I)-Alexander Kennedy (1781-1832) employed HBC (1798-1829) two children.

(I)-Alexander Kennedy (1781-1832) employed HBC (1798-1829) returned to Orkney with sons (II)-William Kennedy Metis b-1814 and (II)-George Kennedy, Metis b-1816, they went to school in Orkney

Rosette Le Cuyer, Ojibwa Metis, b-1825, arrived 1831 Mackinac, daughter Joseph Le Cuyer, and Ojibwa Metia Woman b-1806, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.  

Alexis L'Esperance, born November 28, 1796, Sorel, died December 11, 1890, St Francois Xavier, Manitoba, son Pierre L'Esperance and Marie Marguerite Aucoin; contract with Hudson Bay Company was cancelled by mutual consent. and he became a settler.  His family being an encumbrance at the fort is the cause of his obtaining his freedom.

(III)-Charles La Violette (1795-1867) son (II)-Jean Baptiste Violet b-1766 and (V)-Marie Angelique Garneau b-1770; married 1825 Red River, Elizabeth Cree woman b-1806

William Lawrence, Ojibwa Metis, b-1825, arrived 1833 St. Ignace son Col. Lawrence, Metis and Ojibwa Woman, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.

Francois Le Cuyer b-1798 from Beauhamois, Quebec joined HBC (1825-1827) to work Thompson River and Red River HBC (1827-1851) to work Columbia District.  He had two or more wives and eight children.

Benjamin Linklater Metis b-1825 Albany joined HBC (1841-1893)

Elizabeth Louisignan, Ottawa Metis, b-1825, Mackinac daughter Francis Louisignon, Ottawa Metis and Ottawa Metis Woman, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.  Lives in Detroit.

(II)-Margaret McDonell, Metis, (1825-1835), died wile boarding with Rev. David T. Jones daughter (I)-Allen McDonnell (1778-1859) and Margaret, a native woman; 

Birth (II)-Thomas McDermot, Metis, died December 1, 1849 son (I)-Andrew McDermot (1783-1881) and Mary an Indian Girl; .

(I)-Peter McKenzie (1806-1852) joined HBC (1825-1852) Lake Superior, Moose (New Brunswick) and Moose Factory.  Married 1834 Long Lake, Lake Superior, Josette Monier Metie/Indian epouse 1820/21 (I)-Alexander McTavish (1784-1832)
    (II)-Peter McKenzie Metis (1838-1910)
    (II)-George McKenzie Metis (1840-1918)

James Marreu, Ojibwa Metis, b-1820, arrived 1825 Mackinac son Marreu and a squaw (iskwao) (Ojibwa Woman), listed March 28, 1836 treaty.  Rejected as from west end of Lake Superior.  James was listed 1/4 Metis therefore mother must be a Metis not full blood.  (Squaw is a very insulting English word.)

York Factory, birth (II)-John Miles, Metis (1825-1861) son (I)-Robert Seaborn Miles Sr. (1795-1870) to (II)-Elizabeth (Betsey) Sinclair, Metis (1805-1878) 

Sault Ste. Marie, birth, Touissaint Piquette, Ojibwa Metis,  son Charles Piquette, Ojibwa Metis, borh 1806 and Marie Ojibwa Metis b-1807, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.

Dakota, birth Marguerite Renville Metis daughter Joseph (Akipa) Renville (1779-1846) Metis and Marie (Tonkanne) Little Crow (daughter of the sister of Chief Little Crow).

James Kipp (1788-1865+) of Montreal, working for the Columbia Fur Company, built a trading post at the mouth of the White Earth River for the Assiniboine trade.

Birth, Dakota, Thomas Dorion (Peguwaakinica) Metis son Louis Dorion (1782-1890) and Zeah White Cloud, married 1st Rattling Iron High Hawk, 2nd marriage Good Heart, 3rd marriage Iron Feather.

Henry William Johnston, Ojibwa Metis, b-1825 arrived 1829 Sault Ste Marie, son George Johnson and Ojibwa Metis, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.

(I)-Donald McKenzie (1783-1851) married August 18, 1825 Red River, Adelgonde Humbert.

Elizabeth Oakes, Ojibwa Metis, b-1825, arrived 1835 Grand River, daughter Charles H. Oakes and pure Ojibwa Indian woman from Sault Ste Marie, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.

Alexes Perault, Ottawa Metis, b-1825 Mackinac son John Baptiste Perault and Mary Anne Ottawa Metis b-1807 Mackinac, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.

(I)-John Pritchard (1777-1855) boasted a line of well built houses from White Horse Plain to Netley Creek, an abundance of domestic cattle and a prospect of wheat exceeding anything heretofore produced in this Red River Country.  This is significant as it is all on the west bank of Red River, Metis territory.  Johns family was considered Metis by the HBC.

Etienne Provost and 21 other Canadian traders were in the Provost Utah Valley and being tricked by the natives 17 were killed only Provost and 4 others escaped.

(VI) Francois Robidoux born September 25, 1788, St. Louis, Missouri son of (V)-Joseph Robidou (1750-1860) and Catherine Rolet, he was fined this year for trading guns to the Indians.  It was against Mexican law to trade guns.

Angelique Terdiff, Cree Metis, b-1825 Sault Ste Marie, daughter Pierre Terdiff and Margaret Terdiff, Cree Metis, b-1799, arrived 1822 Sault Ste Marie,  listed March 28, 1836 treaty.  Rejected as a Cree as reported by John Holiday. 

(II)-James Todd, Metis, baptized 1825, York Factory, Hudson Bay, son (I)-William Todd, 1784-1851) and Elizabeth (Isabelle) Dennet, Metis, b-1804/05.

This year the bison (buffalo) hunt was a total failure and the Metis, who had ranged far out onto the plains, survived their homeward trek by eating their dogs, horses, their bison (buffalo) robes, leather tents and their shoes.  The Reverend David Jones, (1798-1844), noted that  this severe lesson may teach the thoughtless Canadian half breeds to turn their attention to diligence and industry on their farms.  He considered hunters to be idle, roving, imprudent and, in times of want, even threatening and dangerous.  He however indulged in pemmican when it was available and it was the staple food of his mission school..

The American Government created Indian Territory (Country) between the Red and Missouri River, providing further pressure on the Natives to migrate from their lands east of the Mississippi to the west.  They are under the threat of the loss of Federal protection against state and local elements and other forms of coercion to migrate.

The Hudson Bay Company, after merging with the North West Company, held Oregon, Washington, Idaho, Wyoming, Montana and outposts as far as Alaska, Hawaii and San Francisco, including much of Canada- nearly one twelfth of the earth's surface, exercising the authority of a sovereign government.  The Metis had accomplished, with minor blood shed, more territorial authority than any European peoples including the Roman Empire.  The French had opened a continent and the Metis had humanely tamed it.  Only the aboriginal peoples, whom we call Indians, held greater territorial sovereignty, covering two continents which, when compared to Europe or Asia, lived in relative peace with a higher quality of health, variety of food and, from a bias point of view, well being and therefore civilization.  Even with the more aggressive neighbors to the south, we had and still have the longest undefended border in the world.  No other civilization can make that claim as they must rely on might, not right, to maintain their civilization.

Francois Gourneau alias Geurnou, Guernoe (Garneau) (1800-1870) of Red Lake Band, Minnesota married about 1825 Pembina, North Dakota a Marguerite Martineau born 1805-1809 and on annuity roll #1166 1893 Red Lake, Minnesota.

The inhabitants of Red River buy Fort Douglas, built in 1812 on the west bank of the Red River, just below the spot where the Assiniboine joins the Red River.  Some claim that most Voyagers or trip-men that man the York boats are from the Red River community.  The employees of the Hudson Bay Company dropped from one thousand, nine hundred and eighty three in 1821 to eight hundred and twenty seven, forcing many into other occupations or into the free trade market. A new grain mill is in operation at Red River and 1,600 bushels of wheat are in storage.

The Reverend David Jones (d-1844) of Red River reports the Metis bison (buffalo) hunt of the fall is a total failure.  They survived the bitter homeward trek by eating their dogs and horses.  The Welsh Church of England Minister wrote "May this severe lesson teach the thoughtless Canadian Half Breeds to turn their attention to diligence and industry on their farms."   William Williams, Governor of the Hudson Bay Company Southern Department, retired, and (I)-George Simpson (1787-1860) assumed command of both departments.

(I)-George Simpson (1787-1860) an Englishman of the Hudson Bay Company considered the Canadian Freemen as worthless and a motley crew, the very scum of the Country.

Canoe on Ottawa River This water color represents an Indian trapper family in their lodge near Fort Garry, Red River in the 1820's. They are clad in traditional buckskin and trading-post clothing. It is noteworthy that many Europeans at this time could not differentiate between Indian and Metis.  This, to me, looks more like a Metis family than Indian?

 

Reverend John West suggested that the orphaned or abandoned children of Country Marriages between Indian women and Hudson Bay Company servants be educated at the Red River Boarding School, but this was not approved. Governor George Simpson said this would, in his opinion, be to no purpose until agriculture and not the Chase becomes the main pursuit of the Savage Tribes.  (I)-George Simpson (1787-1860) did not like what he considered to be West's expensive schemes of Schools and missionaries all over the country, nor his inclination to deal freely in politics. (I)- George Simpson (1787-1860) set forth a policy saying that Missionaries should refrain from imposing their moral scruples, especially on such issues as 'Country Marriages'.  They should not meddle with the Company trade. West was replaced by Reverend David Jones and his schoolmaster, Harbidgem, who could neither keep accounts nor teach the common rules of arithmetic. Harbidgem was replaced by an Orkney man named William Garrioch.

Father Richard arrives at Detroit.

An estimated 680 Red River carts are counted in the annual bison (buffalo) hunt out of Red River.

Alexander Ross noted that this winter was unusually severe in Red River, having started earlier and continuing later than usual.  The snow was 3 feet deep, 4-5 feet deep in the woods.  The cold was intense, often 45 degrees below zero F.  The ice measured 5 feet seven inches.  The freezing began in late October.

Cecelia Trotier, Ottawa Metis, b-1825 St. Ignace daughter Francois Trotier, Metis and Ottawa Metis Woman, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.

(III)-Peter Skene Ogden (1790/94-1854) a violent man and William Kittson were sent into the Snake River Country, south of the Columbia River to trap the country bare.  They had 58 men including Charles McKay, 10 engages, 53 Freemen, 30 wives and 35 children.  The reached as far south as the Great Salt Lake, Utah. 

William H. Ashley (1778-1838) and Andrew Henry b-1775 and 25 men out of Saint Louis, Missouri traveled to Yellowstone to trade.  They made a Mackinac boat and traveled by horse back  Mr Harn and wife, Clyman and Fitzpatrick considered themselves as Mountain Men.  On this trip 29 H.B.C. men deserted to join the Ashley Rocky Mountain Fur Company.

The newly independent Mexico gained control of what was called Alta (Upper) California aka Las California from Spain.

January 30:  The St. Pauls Anglican Church of Red River opened for business. This was a very bad winter.  There were no bison (buffalo), only  famine in the Red River.

February 8:  Cahokia, marriage, (V)-Louis Lepage, Metis son (IV)-Joseph Lepage, Metis, and Therese Gaudin: married 1st Marie Trothier; married 2nd November 3, 1829 Cahokia, Adelaide Rov

February 9:  Russia and Britian established the Canada Alaska boarder to the detriment of Canada.

February 20: Red River, baptism (II)-Joseph Flett, Metis son (I)-George Flett (1775-1850) and (II)-Margaret (Peggy) Whitford, Metis b-about 1798 

April:  At Fort Carlton, Chief Factor John Stewart noted that all the women were out making sugar.

June 22:  St. Louis, Missouri, marriage Michel Robidou and  (V)-Suzanne Vaudry daughter (IV)-Antoine Vaudry born May 17, 1747 and (IV)-Anne Agnes Bourassa et Brassard, b-1757. 

July 26:  birth Alex Sailor, Indian, died February 28, 1917 Saulte Ste Marie, Michigan

August 15: Red River  (IV)-Louis Gariepy (Gardipie, Gardipis and Gaedipi) born July 3, 1777 Lachenaye, Quebec  1st married 1799 Josephte Saulteaux: 2nd marriage 1825 Josephte  Ducharme Metis b-1806 daughter Ducharme (1775-1850) and Josephte Villebrun Metis or Chippewa Native

August 18: Red River marriage (I)-Donald McKenzie (1783-1851) 2nd married to Adelgonde Humbert Droz, b-1807,  his 18 year old governess of his children.

September 26: birth William McDonald, listed white, died March 6, 1911 Sault St. Marie Michigan.

October 25, 1825 Red River marriage (I)-John Foulds (1798-1868) employed HBC (1821-1825) mostly Fort Gary, Red River, married (II)-Mary Fidler, Metis born after 1805 (maybe 1811?) daughter (I)-Peter Fidler (1769-1822) and Mary Swampy Cree

November:  John Franklin (1786-1847) describes his men playing ice hockey on frozen Great Bear Lake, North West Territories, they were using skates.  Franklin wrote "till the snow fell the game of hockey played on the ice was the morning sport."

 

 

1826  

Mr. Armitinger is living on the Canadian side of Sault Ste Marie.  Chippewa County and the Seat of Justice were established at Sault de Ste Marie or, as some call it, St. Mary's Village.

Henry Bailly, Ottawa/Ojibwa Metis, b-1826 Grand River, son Francis Bailly Ottawa Metis, b-1805 and Ojibwa squaw (iskwao) whom the chief Ka-she-way says is his cousin, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.  (Squaw is a very insulting English word.)

Augusta Bazelette, Ojibwa Metis, b-1826, arrived 1833 Mackinac, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.  Rejected as mother a Menomonie.  Augusta bound to the mission.

Angelique Belonger, Ojibwa Metis, b-1816, arrived 1826 Mackinac listed March 28, 1836 treaty.  Rejected as from the Leech Lake Indians.  Paul Belonger is husband.

(II)-Peter Bird, Metis b-1826 Red River son  (I)-James Bird (1773-1856) and Oo-menahomiski Indian woman; 

Mary Blanchard, Ojibwa Metis, b-1826 St. Ignace daughter Isaac Blanchard and Ojibwa Metis woman, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.

Joseph Boissoneau, in 1846, claimed to have occupied the same spot on the North Bank of St. Mary's River (Sault Ste Marie) from 1826 to 1846.  He claimed authority from Major Weinniett when commanding Drummand Island.  He also says that Mademoiselle St. George, now in Montreal, holds the west part under the same authority.  Joseph Boisenneault Jr. claims a part of his fathers rights and the rest by possession.

Charlotte Bradley, Ojibwa Metis, b-1820, arrived 1826 Mackinac, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.  Rejected as father resides in Chicago and children are at school in the district.

(IV)-Archangle Cadotte born 1798 Red Lake Falls, Wisconsin daughter (IV)-Jean Baptiste Cadotte (1761-1818) and Marie Janette Piquette also known as Saugemauqua married about 1826 Sault Ste Marie, Michigan a Louis Gurnoe born 1790 LaPointe, Wisconsin.

James Calder, Metis, b-1826 N.W. son Marcus Calder and Maggie Cree; married Maria Gibson b-1834 Red River daughter William Gibson and Mary.

Duncan Campbell born 1802 who married Dakota woman is trading Fort Barbour at St. Croix Falls. 

Hannah Campbell, Ojibwa Metis, born 1826 Mackinac daughter John Campbell, Ojibwa Metis and White Woman, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.

Joseph D. Cameron, who is married to an Indian woman, recorded at Lac La Pluie in 1826 that the Oat-che-buoys are treachery, insolence, superstition and drunkenness.  Hostility is greeted with hostility.  Lac La Pluie (Rainy Lake) is 90 miles south of Lac Seul.

Sophia Cantwa, Ojibwa Metis, b-1826 daughter Alphonse Cantwa, Pawnee Metis, b-1786 Saulte Ste Marie and Ojibwa Woman, listed March 28, 1836 treaty. 

Bela Chapman Sr., Metis, b-1806 arrived 1826 Mackinac, living Milwakey, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.

Mary Chapman, Ojibwa Metis, b-1806, arrived 1826 Mackinac, married to Bela Chapman Sr., and listed March 28, 1836 treaty.  Accepted as lives in Mackinac, traveled on business to Green Bay and put on list at request of council of chiefs.

Elizabeth Chapman, Ojibwa Metis b-1822, arrived 1826 Mackinac, daughter Bela Chapman Sr., and Mary Chapman, Ojibwa Metis, b-1806, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.  

Reuben Chapman, Ojibwa Metis b-1824, arrived 1826 Mackinac, child Bela Chapman Sr., and Mary Chapman, Ojibwa Metis, b-1806, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.  

Amanda Chapman, Ojibwa Metis b-1826, Mackinac, daughter Bela Chapman Sr., and  Mary Chapman, Ojibwa Metis, b-1806, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.  

Susan Charboneau, Ojibwa Metis, b-1806, arrived 1826, St. Ignace, wife Louis Charbeau, Ojibwa Metis, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.   

Nancy Collins, Ojibwa Metis, b-1825, arrived 1826 Mackinac, son of Collins Metis listed March 28, 1836 treaty.  Rejected as mother a British Indian. 

William Davenport, Ojibwa Metis, b-1826, arrived 1833 Mackinac son Ambrose Davenport and Indian from Lac Du Flambeau, listed March 28, 1836 treaty, rejected.

Henry Davenport, Ojibwa Metis, b-1828, arrived 1833 Mackinac son Ambrose Davenport and Indian from Lac Du Flambeau, listed March 28, 1836 treaty, rejected.

Isabella Dingley, Ojibwa Metis, b-1826, Mackinac, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.  Rejected as mother a La Point Indian.

Hercules Dousman of the American Fur Company is assigned to Prairie du Chien, Wisconsin.

Catherine Ermitanger baptised Drummond Island daughter Thomas Ermitanger and Genevieve Spanard, possible daughter Charles Spenard and Genevieve Dufault and thus possible sister to Charlotte (Spenard) Giroux.  Source Cindy Leutz.

Nancy Farley, Ojibwa Metis, b-1820, arrived 1826 Mackinac, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.  Bound to the mission by Father.

James Fenimore Cooper in his famous novel 'The Last of The Mohicans' wrote; his Canadian fathers...taught him to drink the fire-water, and he became a rascal.  By 1861 the term fire-water was in general usage.  

Red River, baptism, (III)-Edward Fidler, Metis son (II)-Charles Fidler, Metis b-1798 and likely Metis or Indian girl.

John Baptiste Fontaine, Ojibwa Metis, b-1826 Mackinac, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.  Rejected as only 1/8 Indian blood.

Charles Gauthier married Hudson Bay Betsy England adopted daughter of James England.

William Gibeault Metis (1826-1886) joined HBC (1841-1886) York, Churchill, married 1852 Margaret Oman daughter William Oman Metis Sr. (1802-1867)

(III)-Caroline (Clara) Gladman, Metis b-about 1826, d-1884, New Brunswick House, Moose District son  (II)-Joseph Gladman, Metis (1796-1875), employed HBC (1814-1867) and (II)-Margaret Auld, Metis (1794-1857) daughter (I)-William Auld (1770-1830): married James Vincent.

Louis Gornow (Gornor), Ojibwa Metis, b-1790, arrived 1826 Sault Ste Marie, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.  Louis Gournon, alias Gornow (Garneau) (1790-1865), moved to Sault Ste Marie, Michigan, as noted in the 1836 mixed blood treaty records.

York Factory, birth, (III)-Charles William Grant, Metis son (II)-Richard Grant (1793-1862) employed HBC (1816-1850) and Mary Anne Berland, aka (Breland Burleigh), Metis.

Albert Gravereat, Ojibwa Metis, b-1826 Mackinac, son Henry Gravereat and Charlotte Ojibwa Metis b-1790, listed March 28, 1836.

Mrs. Pierre Gronda, Ojibwa Metis, b-1817, arrived 1826 St. Ignace wife Pierre Gronda, Metis, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.

Swan River, birth (II)-James Isbister, Metis baptized August 8, 1831 Cumberland House son (I)-Thomas Isbister (1793-1936) and (II)-Mary Kennedy, Metis b-1807, daughter (I)-Alexander Kennedy (1781-1832) and Mary Aggathas Isbister Metis Cree (1782-1863). 

Samuel Jackson, Ojibwa Metis, b-1820, arrived 1826 Mackinac, son Jackson and Angelick Ojibway, b-1800 listed March 28, 1836 treaty.  Bound to the mission.

Therese Jackson, Ojibwa Metis, b-1818, arrived 1826 Mackinac, a servant of E. Biddle, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.

Margaritta Le Cuyer, Ojibwa Metis, b-1826, arrived 1831 Mackinac, daughter Joseph Le Cuyer, and Ojibwa Metia Woman b-1806, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.  

James Kipp (1788-1880) moved up river from Fort Kipp on the Missouri to the mouth of the White Earth River to build a fort.  This fall and winter he built Fort Floyd later known as Fort Union at the confluence of the Missouri and Yellowstone rivers.

English River birth (IV)-Jean Baptiste La Violette, Metis, son (III)-Charles Laviolette (1795-1867) and Elizabeth Cree woman, b-1806; Joined HBC 1856-1858) York Factory and Swan River, freeman at Red River; married Nancy Paul b-1828
    (V)-Charles La Violette Metis b-1850
    (V)-Elizabeth La Violette Metis b-1858
    (V)-Norbert  La Violette Metis b-1861
    (V)-Florence La Violette Metis b-1863
    (V)-Guillelmine La Violette Metis b-1865
    (V)-Jerome La Violette Metis b-1867

Birth likely Red River, Marie Louis Leveille, Metis, (1826-1872) daughter Paul Leveille, (1783-1876) and Julie McKenzie, Metis (1806-1846): married Pierre Tche-mar-nay Falcon son Pierre Diverssant dit Falcon and Marie Grant.

Red River, birth (II)-Kenneth Logan, Metis (1826-1859) son (I)-Robert Logan (1773-1866) and Mary Saulteaux d-1838; joined HBC (1841-1853) Columbia District, retired Red River 1853.  Married 1850 (III)-Susan McGillivray Metis d-1859 daughter (II)-Simon McGillivray Metis (1792-1840) and Therese Raefe Metis b-1819.  (II)-Simon McGillivray Metis (1792-1840) is son (I)-William McGillivray and Susan Indian.
One child is recorded: but other daughters are known but not recorded
    (III)-Alice Logan Metis b-1855

Red River, birth (II)-Nathaniel Logan, Metis (1826/1832-1859) son (I)-Robert Logan (1773-1866) and Mary Saulteaux d-1838; joined HBC (1849-1858) Red River, assigned Montreal (1855-1857)

Madeleine Lozon, Ottawa Metis, b-1826 Mackinac, daughter Joseph Lozon, Ottawa Metis, and Nancy Ottawa Metis, b-1806, Mackinac, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.

William McGulpin, Ottawa Metis, b-1826 Mackinac son David McGulpin and Ottawa Woman, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.

John Dugald McKay Metis b-1826 joined HBC (1843-1857) Island Lake & Swan River, married 1856 Fort Pelly, Harret McKay churched Heading 1857
    Joseph McKay Metis b-1856 bapt 1857
    William McKay Metis b-1858, bapt 1859
    Charles McKay Metis bapt 1858
    Julia McKay Metis b-1862
    John James McKay Metis bapt 1865
    Hebry McKay Metis b-1867
    Francois McKay Metis bapt 1869

William E. McKay Metis b-1826 son William McKay and Elizabeth Jolybois, Joined HBC (1843-1871) Trout Lake, married Elizabeth Grant

Red River, birth Jeam Baptiste Laviolette, Metis, son Charles Laviolette (1795-1867) and Elizabeth Cree woman, b-1806

Red River birth (III)-Alexander McKay, Metis (1826-1878) son (II)-John Richards McKay Metis, (1792-1877/87) and (II)-Harriet Ballenden Metis (1795/1800-1854); joined HBC (1837-1882)

(II)-Alexander McDonell Metis born Indian Country, d-1847 son (I)-Allan McDonell (1778-1859) and native woman: married daughter John McKay and they had two Metis kids.

John McNinch, Ojibwa Metis, b-1818, arrived 1826 Mackinac, son McNinch and Angelick Ojibway, Ojibwa Metis b-1800, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.  John is bound to the mission.

York Factory, baptism (II)-Ann McKenzie, Metis daughter (I)-John George McTavish (1778-1847) employed HBC (1821-1846) and his 2nd wife (II)-Nancy McKenzie, Metis daughter Roderick MacKenzie (1772-1859) and an Indian woman. 

York Factory, baptism (II)-Grace McKenzie, Metis daughter (I)-John George McTavish (1778-1847) employed HBC (1821-1846) and his 2nd wife (II)-Nancy McKenzie, Metis daughter Roderick MacKenzie (1772-1859) and an Indian woman. 

William Morgan of Batavia New York was captured and murdered by fellow Masons for divulging fraternity secrets.

The Reverend A.G. Morice noted that the Iroquois are a sizable element of the Hudson Bay Companies engages in New Caledonia. They also brought the technology of constructing birch bark canoes, which the local people did not possess. Many Iroquois married local women and settled in the region.

Louisa Nowlin (Nolin), Ojibwa Metis, b-1820, arrived Sault Ste Marie, daughter Louis Nowlin (Nolin), Ojibwa Metis, b-1788 arrived 1812 Sault Ste Marie, and Mary Ojibwa Metis b-1802 Sault Ste Marie, listed March 28., 1836 treaty.

Herion Nowlin (Nolin), Ojibwa Metis, b-1822, arrived Sault Ste Marie, son Louis Nowlin (Nolin), Ojibwa Metis, b-1788 arrived 1812 Sault Ste Marie, and Mary Ojibwa Metis b-1802 Sault Ste Marie, listed March 28., 1836 treaty.

Angelick Nowlin (Nolin), Ojibwa Metis, b-1824, arrived 1826 Sault Ste Marie, daughter Louis Nowlin (Nolin), Ojibwa Metis, b-1788 arrived 1812 Sault Ste Marie, and Mary Ojibwa Metis b-1802 Sault Ste Marie, listed March 28., 1836 treaty.

Marie Pamprun, Metis, (1826-1890), born Fraser Lake, British Columbia daughter Pierre Pamprun HBC trader and Catherine Humpherville, Metis, born Hudson bay daughter Thomas Humpherville and Cree or Metis; married Fort Vancouver Forbes Barclay.

(II)-George Park, Metis born 1826, likely Red River son (I)-John Park (1768/71-1847) and Margaret Metisse, b-1796, died February 19, 1853, Red River.

Norman Peck, Ojibwa Metis, b-1818, arrived 1826 Mackinac, father dead, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.  Bound to the mission.

(II)-Sophia Peebles, Metis b-1826, likely Albany, baptized November 29, 1836 Red River, daughter (I)-James Peebles (1778/83-1840) and Native woman, married November 20, 1845, William Thomas b-1824, a Cree Indian, more likely a Cree Metis.

Joseph Robinson, Ojibwa Metis, b-1826 St. Ignace, son Francis Robertson, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.  Grand child of the chief at Iroquois Point.

Sophia Rousseau, Ottawa Metis, b-1826 Mackinac, daughter of Rousseau who ran away and Agatha Ottawa woman, listed March 28, 1836, treaty

Catherine Rowland, Ojibwa Metis b-1819, arrived 1826 Mackinac, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.  An orphan at the mission.

(I)-George Simpson (1787-1860) became Governor of the Southern District and Montreal posts as well as his Northern post to become what some called the Little Emperor, his reign was to last until 1857.

(I)- George Simpson (1787-1860), a Scot, a bigamist, fathered three known children on his travels and took a fourth known wife, Margaret Taylor, a Metis, this year and had 2 children.  He would later put her and her children aside, return to England and returned with a fifth bride, 18 year old Francis, who soon returned to England.  It is interesting he held both Indians and Metis women in contempt but used them for sex.

 Jedediah Strong Smith (1799-1831) with a party of 5 traveled the Colorado River and with the help of  Tongva men  overland through Mexican territory to California .   They were arrested and told to leave by whence they came,  departing they went north instead to Columbia River and back east  to American soil, during 1826-1827..

Antoine Snaikell?, Ojibwa Metis, b-1824, arrived 1826 Mackinac, abandoned by father and Ojibwa mother dead, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.

Mary  Snaikal?, Ojibwa Metis, b-1826, Mackinac, abandoned by father and Ojibwa mother dead, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.

John Tanner Jr. Ottawa Metis, b-1826 arrived 1828 Sault Ste Marie son John Tanner Sr. and Ottawa woman, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.  

Margaritta Terrien, Ottawa Metis, b-1826 St. Ignace, daughter Isaac Terrien and Ottawa Woman (Angelique),  this is second husband, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.

Francois Thibault b-1802 son Charles Thibault and Madeleine Plourde; married native woman an one recorded son
    Francois Thibaule Metis b-1831

(I)-Thomas Vincent (1776-1832) employee HBC (1790-1825) returned to England  with Children (II)-Jane Vincent, Metis, (I)-Sophia Vincent, Metis, (II)-John Vincenr, Metis, James Sutherland Vincent, Metis, as well (II)-Jane Renton Metis (1782-1858) daughter (II)-William Renton (1754-1798) and Indian woman:  wife (I)-Thomas  until 1817 and Edward Chambers all beneficiaries of his will.  In 1817 he but aside his wife (I)-Jane Renton, Metis (1782-1858) and took another mans wife Jane Sutherland, daughter James Sutherland.  Sophia, John and James Sutherland are children from Jane Sutherland 1st marriage.   It would appear (I)-Thomas Vincent had more than two wives, at the same time.  He only claims 6 children as his own, but who knows with his questionable value system, see 1817:

            (II)-John Vincent, Metis, born about 1797, Moose Factory, (likely Albany, District), his oldest: he married 1832 Charlotte Thomas (1796-1874) 
            (II)-Harriet Vincent, Metis, b-1798 Albany District, at school in Albany (1808-09),: married 1810 (I)-David Ramsey Stewart, b-1786: 2nd marriage 1827 (I)-George Gladman Jr (1800-1863)
            (II)-Elizabeth Vincent, Metis b-1801, Albany District, at school Albany, (1808/09); married 1832 Jacob Truthwaite b-1790
            (II)-James Vincent, Metis b-1803, Albany District 
            (II)-Jane Vincent, Metis, b-1806, Albany Factory: married (I)-Edward Chambers
            (II)-Thomas Vincent, Metis, b-1810, Albany District, d-1851 London.

Edward Warren, Ojibwa Metis, b-1826 Mackinac, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.  Rejected as living La Point the last two years. 

Stephen Wells, Ojibwa Metis, b-1826, arrived 1827 Mackinac, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.  Rejected as mother from La Pointe tribe.  

Susan Yarns, Ojibwa Metis, b-1826 Mackinac daughter Yarns, both parents are dead, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.

Until this year, white people could be sold as indentured servants in the United States.  Andrew Johnson (1808-1875), who became President in 1865, was a runaway slave, and advertisements appeared in newspapers in an attempt to get him back.  He eventually married Elizabeth McCardle (1810-1876) and became a slave owner.

Thomas L McKenny, Superintendent of Indian Affairs, visited Sault Ste Marie to prepare for the Treaty of Fond Du Lac. He, however, was more interested in the Metis women of the area. John Johnsons daughters, Jane and Eliza, were of particular interest, as was the daughter of Armatinger. He also was in awe that his canoe men had taken the canoe out of the water; mended a breach; reloaded it; cooked breakfast; shaved; washed; ate and re-embarked, all in 57 minutes. The normal standard for this procedure is 60 minutes, which suggests McKenney knew little of the trade business. He also reported that on the Lake Superior run they began at 3:00 AM and by 7:00 PM had paddled 57,600 strokes. When asked, they said that they were not tired yet. They eventually camped at 9:30 PM.

Mr. H. R. Schoolcraft is the current Indian Agent with his twenty-two year old Chippewa wife.  Captain Elijah Boardman is the Captain Commanding the detachment, and Lieutenant Julius Kingsbury commands the second infantry.  T. Pitcher is assistant surgeon.  (IV)-Jean Baptiste Cadotte (1761-1818) children are reported given a section of land each under the treaty of 1826.  One section of land is given to Saugemauqua widow of the late (IV)-Jean Baptiste Cadotte (1797-1818) and to her children (V)-Louison Cadotte (1802-1871), Sophia Cadotte, Archangel Cadotte (1798), Edward Cadotte and Polly Cadotte, one section each.  Unfortunately, this part of the treaty is never ratified and the half-breeds (Metis) of Lake Superior are left without land.

Jedediah Strong Smith (1799-1831) joined an expedition to California and back to St. Louis, they covered Utah, Nevada, much of the eastern California, Oregon, WashingtonIdaho, Montana, and the Dakota's. 

January: Portneuf, Mille Vaches Department, birth (III)-Jemima McKenzie, Metis, daughter (II)-Roderick McKenzie Jr. (1791-1830), and (II)-Sally Sutherland, Metis daughter of (I)-James Sutherland (1778-1844) and Indian Woman; 

January 17: Image Plains, marriage,  (II)-William Gunn, Metis (1822-1842) son (I)-Donald Gunn (1797-1878) employed HBC (1813-1822) out of York Factory; married a half-breed woman before 1821 York Factory and 2nd marriage January 17, 1826, Image Plains, (III)-Margaret Swain, Metis, daughter (II)-James Swain, Metis (1800-1887) and Margaret Racette.  (I)-James Swain Sr b-1775 married a native woman.

January 22; Red River  baptism/birth (III)-Mary Whitford, Metis, died May 10, 1833, daughter (II)-James Whitford, Jr. Metis and Mary Spence; 

February 6:  At Red River, Donald McKenzie at Fort Garry wrote to Andrew Colvile that the settlement was prosperous and tranquil.  A new grain mill had finally been put into operation, and 1,600 bushels of wheat were in store for Norway House.

February 28:  Red River, marriage (I)-William Leith, b-1784 of HBC (1820-1821) to (II)-Elizabeth Spence, Metis, daughter (I)-James Spence, b-1779 and Indian woman.

March 21:   Father Richard of Detroit reports that 600 Canadian voyagers assembled at Mackinac every year between the first of May and the first of October. Father Richard also reports the population at Sault Ste Marie on the American side is forty seven men, thirty women, and seventy five children.  Those living on the St. Maries River, however, are 75 men, 112 women and 55 children.  Louis Gurno, his wife, and three children under 21 years are listed, as is (V)-Louis Cadott and wife. They are listed in the July 23, 1827 census of Township St. Marie County Chippewa.  A (V)-Michael Cadotte (1787-1856), with eight children, is listed as residing at La Point and a (V)-Jean Baptiste Cadotte (b1790), with four children, is located at Snake River.  The Mestizoes or Metis primarily occupy Sault Ste Marie, Mackinac and small detached of settlements on the frontier.  Those French also occupy Detroit and Monroe.  At St. Mary, fishing for white fish and brook trout is the primary occupation,  followed by the making of maple sugar.  The gardens include potatoes, oats, peas and strawberries.  Mr. John Johnson, age 64, an Irishman, married to Oshauguscodaywaygua, age 54, daughter of Chief Wa-ba-jick of Le Pointe, runs the establishment, and they have three sons and four daughters. 

May 5:  A flood drove many Red River farmers from their homes.  This great flood carried away houses, cattle and trees. They were swept away in 1/2 hour when an ice jam broke. Fortunately, only five people are killed. Three churches and the mill survived. This is the largest flood in recorded times. They survived by digging cellars in the prairies, roofed with sod, and thereby lived underground through the winter; much as the first Scots had when they arrived.  Many departed for the United States and some estimate the number was as high as 500 people.  The flood waters didn't crest until May 22.  Most of the Swiss and German mercenaries, some 250, quit Red River.  Some suggest over 500 in all departed Red River.

June 21: Trout Lake birth (II)-James Cromartie, Metis (1826-1911) son (I)-John Cromartie (1792-1878) Orkney, employed HBC (1812-1870), 1st married about 1823 Elizabeth Indian Woman; 2nd married 1839 (II)-Catherine Park, Metis, (1816/17-1860) daughter (I)-John Park (1768/71-1847) and Margaret Metisse (1796-1853)

August 3: Upper Red River baptism (III)-Charles Favel, Metis son (II)-Thomas Favel (Favell) (1780-1848), Metis and Sally a Cree woman

August 27: Churchill Factory, birth (II)-Edward Cunningham, Metis, son (I)-Patrick Cunningham (1789/94-1831) Ireland, employed HBC (1812-1831) and (II)-Mary (Anne) Bruce, Metis (1794-1859).  (II)-Nancy Cunningham, Metis and (II)-Catherine Cunningham, Metis were both baptized August 14, 1833.  (II)-Edward was drowned at Severn, York District October 15, 1831 leaving wife and 6 children, most born in the interior.. 

September 30: Moose Factory, birth (II)-John Swanson, Metis son (I)-William Swanson (1794-1865) and (II)-Anne (Nancy) Brown, Metis d-before 1835. 

Autumn: The following folks departed York Factory for Orkney and all were included in the will of (I)-Thomas Vincent (1776-1832);

        (I)-Thomas Vincent (1776-1832) wife Jane Vincent, Jane Sutherland, Jane Chambers, Indian or Metis
                Children: (II)-Jane Vincent, Metis, (II)-Thomas Vincent, Metis

         (I)-Unknown Sutherland wife Jane Vincent, Jane Sutherland, Jane Chambers, Indian or Metis 
                Children (II)-Sophia Sutherland, Metis, (II)-John Sutherland, Metis, (II)-James Sutherland, Metis

        (I)-Edward Chambers b-1797 husband Jane Vincent, Jane Sutherland, Jane Chambers, Indian or Metis

October 3: Red River, Marriage (II)-James Swain Jr. Metis (1799-1887) son (I)-James Swain Sr. b-1775 and native woman; married October 3, 1826. Red River, Margaret Racette b-1809  James states his birth as 1799 age or 1800 but employed HBC (1809-1823) which would suggest an earlier date?  First job mending nets and interpreter so 10 year old is reasonable.

October 9:   The Stone Indians are severely reprimanded by the Chief Factor at Edmonton House for attempting to steal horses. A few years later at the same location, a group of Assiniboines, some of whom were in disgrace for stealing, set fire to the long grass across the river, threatening the Edmonton agricultural operation on the south bank of the river.

October 14:   The plains are on fire, which is started by Joseph La Doceur, tenting with our hunters, or by those roving scoundrels- the Stone Indians. The Stone Indians will light fire to the grass at Fort Carlton next season.

December 26:  Red River, baptism (II)-William Leith, Metis son (I)-William Leith, b-1784 of HBC (1820-1821) to (II)-Elizabeth Spence, Metis. 

 

1827  

Mary Boadwine, Ojibwa Metis, b-1827, arrived 1833 St. Ignace daughter Joseph Beaudwin, Ojibwa Metis and Angelick Boadwine, Ojibwa Metis, b-1798, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.

James Bridger (1804-1881) son of William Bridger and Chloe of Virginia in 1827 joined Smith, Jackson and Sublette and on August 4, 1830, he, Thomas Fitzpatrick, Milton G. Sublette, Henry Fraeb and Jean Baptiste Gervais purchased the company, becoming partners in the new Rocky Mountain Fur Company.

John Baptiste Cadotte, Ojibwa Metis, b-1827 Sault Ste Marie son Louis Cadotte, Ojibwa Metis b-1806 Sault Ste Marie and Lucy Cadotte, Ojibwa Metis b-1814 La Pointe, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.

Upper Mississippi District, Joseph S. Campbell, Metis born 1827/36 died 1869 son Scott Campbell, Metis (1790's-1851) and Dakota woman; married Mary Anne.

George Campbell, Metis born about 1827/32 died before 1855 Upper Mississippi District son Duncan Campbell born 1802 and Dakota woman; married Dakota woman.

Mary Cheveaux, Ojibwa, b-1801, arrived 1827 Mackinac, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.  Rejected, Wife of Joseph Cheveaux.  Of Mississippi origin.  [   ] say she is from Font du Lac.

Sault Ste. Marie:  Albany, marriage (I)-Thomas Corcoran (1794-1865) employed HBC (1818-1855) married (II)-Charlotte Sutherland, Metis, d-1854 Albany, daughter of (I)-John Sutherland, (1778-1812) and Indian widow of Donald McPherson.  Children (II)-Richard Edwards Corcoran, Metis, (II)-Jane Isabella Corcoran, Metis, (II)-Margaret Corcoran, Metis, (II)-Mary Corcoran, Metis, b-1821, Moose daughter of (I)-John Corcoran d-1827, employed HBC (1818-1826) and Indian woman.  (I)-John is brother of (II)-Thomas.  (II)-Mary Corcoran married 1855, Albany, Thomas Wiegand.   (I)-John left one child (II)-Mary Corcoran, Metis, in Micawbanish, New Brunswick and another child at Sault Ste. Marie in 1827, born (1825-1826).

Henry Curleyhead Metis/Indian (1827-1900) joined HBC (1845-1887) Norway House.

Francis Dauphiny, Ojibwa Metis, b-1827, Mackinac, son Francois Dauphiny, and Josette Ojibwa Metis, b-1800, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.  Rejected as from Leech Lake Indians.

Francis Decotau, Ojibwa Metis, b-1827, Mackinac, son Nicholas Decotaw and Ojibwa Woman, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.

Geneviere Dufault, Ojibwa Metis, b-1827, arrived 1829 St. Ignace, daughter Francois Default, Ojibwa Metis b-1796 Sault Ste Marie, listed March 28, 1826 treaty.

Elizabeth Farling, Ojibwa Metis, b-1817, arrived 1827 Mackinac, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.  Does not live with parents.

Red River, baptism, (III)-Elizabeth Fidler, Metis daughter (II)-Charles Fidler, Metis b-1798 and likely Metis or Indian girl.

Osnaburgh, birth (II)-Hector Finlayson, Metis (1827-1901) son (I)-Nicol Finlayson (1794-1877) and a native woman; joined HBC (1838-1887) assigned Saskatchewan District (1839-1850), Swan River & Cumberland (1850-1856), Rockey Mountain House (1856-1857) Red River & Lac La Pluie (1857-1887), married Sarah Indian or Metis
    (III)-Sarah Finlayson Metis bapt 1858
    (III)-Margaret Finlayson Metis bapt 1860
    (III)-Nichol Duncan Finlayson Metis bapt 1862, d-1864
    (III)-Hector Finlayson Metis bapt 1864, d-1864
    (III)-unnamed child Finlayson Metis bapt 1865
    (III)-Nicol Finlayson Metis bapt 1868
    (III)-Frances Finlayson Metis bapt 1872, d-1872


(I)-Nicol Finlayson (1794-1877) of the Hudson Bay Company, married to an Indian woman, noted that he would have not taken any rabbits were it not for the fact that they are starving this season.  The Hudson Bay Company takes a mini  census of Red River but ignores the majority of the population- the Free traders,  Metis and Indians.

(I)-Colin Fraser (1807-1867) joined HBC (1827-1867) York Factory and Churchill married Nancy Gandry Metis and they had 11 children on the Saskatchewan.

Lucelle Genereux, Ottawa Metis, b-1837, Grand River, daughter of trader who died and Mary Ojibwa Metis, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.   Mother called herself Indian but was 1/2 blood. 

Electa Gibson, Ojibwa Metis, b-1827 Mackinac wife Robert Gibson Metis and Ojibwa Woman, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.

(III)-Albert Grant Gladnman, Metis b-about 1827, New Brunswick House, Moose District son  (II)-Joseph Gladman, Metis (1796-1875), employed HBC (1814-1867) and (II)-Margaret Auld, Metis (1794-1857) daughter (I)-William Auld (1770-1830).

(II)-George Gladman Jr. Metis (1800-1863) employed HBC (1814-1853) son (I)-George Gladman Sr. (1765-1821) and Mary Moore (Moar) (1774-1858) an Indian or Metis: married 1827 Moose Factory (II)-Harriet Vincent, Metis, b-1798, (epouse 1810, (I)-David Ramsey Stewart, b-1786, daughter (I)-Thomas Vincent (1765-1832) and  (II)-Jane Renton, Metis (1782-1858)

Edward Gornow (Gornor), Ojibwa Metis b-1827 Sault Ste Marie son Louis Gornow (Gornor), Ojibwa Metis b-1790 and  Archangel Gornow (Gornor) aka Cadotte, Ojibwa Metis, b-1798,  listed March 28, 1836 treaty.

Angelique Grenon, aka Gourneau, Metis, b-1827, died after 1861 daughter, Joseph George Guernon, aka Gorneau, Guernon, & Gernon, Metis, b-1795 La Pointe, Wisconsin, died after 1854 son Joseph Guernon and Nowanankkee b-1794; married June 24, 1850, Pembina Dakota Territory, Alexis Jourdain, Metis, b-1825, d-1861, son Jean Baptiste Jourdain and Marguerite Saskaihutewekkwe

White Horse Plain, Red River, birth Peter Hourie, died 1910 Regina, Saskatchewan son of an Orkneyman and a Snake Indian.

Louison Hubert, Ojibwa Metis, b-1827 St. Ignace son Jack Hubert, Ojibwa Metis and Ojibwa Metis Woman, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.

Swan River, birth (II)-Elizabeth Isbister, Metis baptized August 8, 1831 Cumberland House daughter (I)-Thomas Isbister (1793-1936) and (II)-Mary Kennedy, Metis b-1807, daughter (I)-Alexander Kennedy (1781-1832) and Mary Aggathas Isbister Metis Cree (1782-1863). 

John George Johnston, Ojibwa Metis, b-1827 arrived 1829 Sault Ste Marie, son George Johnson and Ojibwa Metis, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.

Lisette Lapelle, Ojibwa Metis, b-1816, arrived 1827, Mackinac, daughter Louis Lapelle, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.  Louis lives at La Point in winter, comes into district and spends his summers.  This is his home.

James Lasley, Ojibwa Metis, b-1827, Mackinac, son Samuel Lasley Jr. and his squaw (iskwao) wife, who is sister to Shaw-en-e-ge-sick, chief of the Bay de Noque Band, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.  (Squaw is a very insulting English word.)

John McGulpin, Ojibwa Metis, b-1827, Mackinac son George McGulpin Sr., Ojibwa Metis, b-1762, Mackinac and Ojibwa Woman, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.

Angelique McClure, Ojibwa Metis, b-1827 Mackinac, abandoned by father, Ojibwa mother dead, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.

(II)-Samuel McKenzie Metis b-1813/14 son (I)-Roderick MacKenzie Sr. (1772-1859) and Angelique a Nipigon woman, Joined HBC (1827-1872) Lake Superior, English River.  one child is recorded
    (III)-Ann McKenzie Metis died before 1878, married Donald Ross Jr.(1840-1878)

Antoine Martin, Ottawa/Ojibwa Metis, b-1827,  St. Ignace, son Louis Martin, Ojibwa Metis and Ottawa Woman, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.

Joseph Nowlin (Nolin), Ojibwa Metis, b-1827, arrived 1828 Sault Ste Marie, son Louis Nowlin (Nolin), Ojibwa Metis, b-1788 arrived 1812 Sault Ste Marie, and Mary Ojibwa Metis b-1802 Sault Ste Marie, listed March 28., 1836 treaty.

Birth (II)-Catherine McDermot, Metis daughter (I)-Andrew McDermot (1783-1881) and Mary an Indian Girl; married December 18, 1845, Thomas Truthwaite Metis bapt 1830.

John (Jean Baptiste) McDougall Metis (1827/29-1903) born Red River, joined HBC (1845-1854) New Caledonia and Columbia District.   John McDougall had two successive wives and thirteen children. Together with his wife Emilie Okanogan  (1835-1890), they had  11 children, 2nd marriage Julie native had 2 girls; 

Sault Ste. Marie, birth, Mary Piquette, Ojibwa Metis, died before 1836, daughter Francis Piquette, b-1800,  listed March 28, 1836 treaty.  Considered of the old stock.

Angelik Piquette, Ojibwa Metis, b-1827 Sault Ste Marie daughter Joseph Piquette Sr. a Canadian who ran away and Angeliick Ojibway, Ojibwa Metis, b-1800 Sault Ste Marie, epouse Gitsheo Ojibway an Indian, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.  

(I)-William Glen Rae (1809-1845) son (I)-John Rae and Margaret Glen Campbell; joined HBC 1827-1845) assigned Red River (1828-1830), (1833-1834) at Fort Edmonton, assigned Columbia District (1834-1845), committed suicide at Yerba Buena [San Francisco] Mexico California.  married 1838 Eloisa (Elizabeth) McLoughlin Metis daughter Dr. John McLoughlin (1784-1857) and Margaret Wadin Metis (1775-1860).   William Glen Rae had one wife and three children. In 1838, Rae married Eloisa McLoughlin b-1814/18 Lake Superior born daughter of Dr. John McLoughlin. Brothers (I)-Richard H. Rae b-1812 and (I)-Dr. John Rae (1813-1893) both involved in the fur trade.  Their children were 
    (II)-John Rae Metis b-1840
    (II)-Margarit Rae Metis b-1841
    (II)-Eloisa Rae Metis b-1842 
By 1850 the widow Eloisa had moved back into the house of Dr. John McLoughlin and in that year, she married Daniel Harvey of Oregon.

Joseph (Akipa) Renville (1779-1846), Metis, is firmly established at Lac Qui Parle, having built Fort Renville/Adams and maintaining an army of warriors called Tokadantee or Prairie Dogs.

Harriet Romaine, Ojibwa Metis, b-1821, arrived 1827 Mackinac, listed, March 28, 1836 treaty.  Rejected as mother a British Indian.

Joseph Rondo born 1797 Montreal married Red River Josephine Beauleau (Boileau) born 1810 Kootenais.

Catherine St. Onge, Ojibwa Metis, b-1810, arrived 1827 Mackinac, wife of Lewis St. Onge, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.  Her relatives are of Saint Marie Indians.

Jedediah Strong Smith (1799-1831) with a party of 18 men and two women again traveled to California and were promptly arrested.  Ten men were killed by Mojave and the women taken.  They again departed for the Columbia River and back home.  Smith decided this was enough and returned to his fur trading business, this was during 1827-1828.

January 27: Red River, baptism, (III)-Charlotte Swain, Metis daughter (II)-James Swain Jr. Metis (1799-1887) son (I)-James Swain Sr. b-1775 and native woman; married 1848, Richard Clark Sr.  
    Richard Clark Metis Jr. born March 27, 1849

April 15:  Red River birth (II)-Soloman Wishart, Metis, son (I)-Thomas Wishart b-1797 Scotland and Barbara Spence Metis.

June 27:   Fort Langley (B.C.) is established by Jame MacMillan and a company of men.

July 19, Red River, baptism (II)-Jemima McKenzie daughter (I)-Donald McKenzie (1783-1851) and Adelgonde Humbert Droz, b-1807

July 31: Red River baptism (II)-William Bruce, Metis b-1791 son (I)-Benjamin Bruce (1771-1823) and native woman.  On the same day (II)-William Bruce, a half-breed native of Red River (actually of York Factory) and Frances Andre, a half-breed woman of Red River were married at the Protestant Mission Church as witnessed by William Tait and (II)-James Bruce b-1801 Saskatchewan District.

Louis Nabes, Metis, born July, 1827, N.W. son Louis Nabes and Nancy Ledoux, Metis, b-1815; married Marie Bousquet, Metis, born January 17, 1837, N.W. daughter, Michel Louis Bousquet and LaLouise Vandette, Metis b-1820, died April 30, 1890 St. Laurent de Grandin, (Saskatchewan).

September 25: Red River, baptism (III)-Margaret Swain, Metis daughter (II)-James Swain Jr. Metis (1799-1887) and Margaret Racette b-1809; 

September 25: Red River, baptism (III)-John Gunn, Metis son (II)-William Gunn, Metis (1822-1842) son (I)-Donald Gunn (1797-1878) employed HBC (1813-1822) out of York Factory; married a half-breed woman before 1821 York Factory and 2nd marriage January 17, 1826, Image Plains, (III)-Margaret Swain, Metis, daughter (II)-James Swain, Metis (1800-1887) and Margaret Racette.

October 9: Ke-che-cow-e-coot, Metis alias Wee-misti-goos, Metis and Keese-cow-e-cumacoat, Metis or (II)-Betsy Cocking, Metis (1775-1835) daughter (I)-Matthew Cocking (1743-1799), wife of (I)-John Pocock Holmes (1783-1858) and epouse 1798 Fort York (I)-Thomas Stayer (1770-1827): is at Norway house with two children.

November 29: (I)-James Monkman Sr. (1771/75-1865) formalized married Mary Cree and had 9 children (II)-James Monkman, Jr. Metis, (I)-Joseph Monkman, Metis, (II)-Ernest Monkman, Metis, (II)-John Monkman, Metis, (II)-Nancy Ann Monkman, Metis, (II)-Harriett Monkman, Metis, (II)-Mary Monkman, Metis, (II)-Marguerite Monkman, Metis, and (II)-Jane Monkman, Metis.  (I)- James settled Red River 1816.

 

 

Back to Top

METIS HISTORY: Return to METIS 1800-1849 index