The Hudson Bay Company dumps hundreds of displaced, dirt poor Scottish and Irish
north of the Metis Red River Colony.
The infamous Thomas Douglas of Selkirk provided neither food supplies or farming implements.
His objective is clear by his actions, that is to instigate problems.

A Metis Flag is introduced



METIS HISTORY Return to METIS 1800-1849 index



The Scottish North West Company believes that the Red River
des Metis Settlement is overrun
by some rascally savages, some Canadian Freeman, and those half-breeds
They believe those Scottish settlers must be removed at all costs.
The Canadians took Washington and burned the Capital and the Presidents house.
The Americans later whitewashed the walls to hide the burn marks and called it the Whitehouse.


James Ballendie, Metis, b-1812 NWT son John Ballendine and Jane Metis.

(II)-John Ballenden Metis b-1810/12-1856) son (I)-John Ballenden b-1757 and Elizabeth Gray is in Orkney whom he returned to in 1802, joined HBC (1828-1856),  (II)-John married 1836 Red River (II)-Sarah McLeod Metis daughter (I)-Alexander Roderick McLeod (1782-1840), they had 3 sons and 3 daughters 

Pierre Beauchamp is born 1812 North West, census 1838 Red River.  Possible son Jacques Beauchamp.

Josette Bouchard, Ottawa Metis, b-1812 Mackinac daughter Eli Bouchard and Ottawa Woman, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.

Louis Boureseau Jr., Ottawa Metis, b-1812 Mackinac, son Louis Boureseau Sr. listed March 28, 1836 treaty.

(I)-Alexander Bremner (Brimner, Bremmer) (1751-1842) joined HBC (1812-1832) York, Red River, Swan River settled White Horse Plain just west of Red River.  Married 1833 (II)-Elizabeth (Betsy) Twaitt Metis (1787-1885) daughter (I)-Magnus Twaitt (1751-1801) and Margaret Indian; 
    (II)-John Bremner Metis
    (II)-Sarah Bremner Metis
    (II)-William Bremner Metis
    (II)-Thomas Bremner Metis (1825-1853)
    (II)-Betsy Bremner Metis
    (II)-Nancy Bremner Metis
    (II)-James Bremner Metis
All the above baptized White Horse Plains April 14, 1833
    (II)-Alexander Bremner Metis bapt 1837 Sturgeon Creek
    (II)-Mary Bremner Metis bapt 1841
    (II)-Peter Bremner Metis bapt 1842
    (II)-Charles Bremner Metis b-1838 bapt by Catholic priest and then by an Anglican clergyman 1853

Henry Budd (1812-1875) Metis born Red River, joined HBC (1832-1835), settler and Schoolmaster, mission house, married 1836 Betsey Work daughter John Work [likely John Work or Wark (1792-1861) and Indian woman]
    Henry Budd Metis bapt 1837 Red River
    Sarah Budd Metis bapt 1839 Red River

Louis  Calahea, aka Caleheo, Calehoe, & Calihue, worked for NWC (1812-1813) HBC (1837-1863) as a freeman from the  “List of population/Canadian Freemen and Descendants Half Breeds/belonging to the Hble Hudsons Bay Company’s Post of Lesser Slave Lake Saskatchewan District outfit 1837/38", and he is recorded as having 1 wife, 3 sons and 4 daughters

(I)-Duncan (Captain) Cameron (1764-1848) a Scottish Trader in 1812 stated; do not "let love to get the better of reason".   If you were to marry before properly settled, then all future prospects would be lost.  He claimed to know this from personal experience.  He is known to have two, maybe more wives.
First married (IV)-Jemima Ermatinger Ojibwa Metis (1800-1817?) daughter (III)-Charles Oakes Ermatinger Metis Ojibwa (1776-1833) a prominent citizen of Sault Ste Marie and Montreal. He deserted his wife and Metis children in Upper Canada in 1820
Second marriage Margaret McLeod, they had 3 sons and 3 daughters

Jean Baptiste Charbonneau born December 25, 1795, died 1883 son Joseph Charbonneau and Marguerite Lamoureux arrived Lake Winnipeg to work the North West.

Toussaint Charbonneau (1767-1843) is believed to have five wives all age 16 or younger.  One of his wives Sacagawea died 1812 leaving two children; Jean Baptiste Charbonneau Metis (1805-1885) and daughter Lisette Charbonneau.  He turned them over to William Clark Governor Missouri Territory.

Edward Cadotte, Ojibwa Metis, b-1812 Sault Ste Marie son Cadotte Ojibwa Metis and Ojibwa Metis Woman, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.

Joseph Carow Jr., Ottawa/Ojibwa Metis, b-1812, arrived 1831 St. Ignace, son Joseph Carow Sr., Ojibwa Metis, and Ottawa Metis Woman, b-1782 St. Ignace, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.  It is noteworthy that woman's tribal origin is listed first.

(I)-John Cromartie (1792-1878) Orkney, employed HBC (1812-1870), 
1st married about 1823 Elizabeth Indian Woman bapt 1836 Red River;
    (II)-Elizabeth Cromartie Metis b-1824, bapt 1834, died 1837
    (II)-James Cromartie Metis b-1826 Trout Lake d-1911 St Andrews, Lockport  HBC (1845-1860) Severn
2nd married 1839 (II)-Catherine Park, Metis, (1816/17-1860) daughter (I)-John Park (1768/71-1847) and Margaret Metisse (1796-1853)
    (II)-William Cromartie Metis b-1841 Fort Severn HBC (1858-1862) married 1862 Mary Ann Hourie b-1848 daughter George Hourie
    (II)-Margaret Cromartie Metis b-1843 Fort Severn
    (II)-John Cromartie Metis b-1848 Fort Severn
    (II)-George Cromartie Metis b-1852 Fort Severn
    (II)-Magnus Cromartie Metis b-1855 Fort Severn
    (II)-Samuel Cromartie Metis b-1857 Fort Severn
    (II)-Catherine Cromartie Metis b-1860 Fort Severn

(I)-Patrick Cunningham (1789/94-1831) Ireland, employed HBC (1812-1831) likely colonist Red River.  Spent (1823-1826) Fort Chipewyan, Athabasca.  Married (II)-Nancy (Anne) Bruce Metis (1794/1810-1859) likely born on the Saskatchewan daughter (I)-Benjamin Bruce (1771-1823) and native girl
    (II)-John Cunningham Metis b-1818 Lac La Plue, married 1841 Rocky Mountain House Margaret Mondion
    (II)-Edward Cunningham Metis b-1820 Il-a-la-Crosse, d-1840 HBC (1834-1840) 
    (II)-James Cunningham Metis b-1822 Il-a-la-Crosse
    (II)-unnamed Cunningham Metis son bapt 1826, d-1848 Lake St. Anne
    (II)-Mary Cunningham Metis bapt 1826
    (II)-John Cunningham Metis bapt-1826
    (II)-Nancy Cunnigham Metis bapt 1833
    (II)-Catherine Cunnigham Metis bapt 1833

(I)-Thomas Isbister (1793-1836) joined HBC (1812-1836) Lake Winnipeg (1812-1814), Cumberland House (1814-1830), and various other posts, married 1821 Norway House, (II)-Mary Kennedy Cree Metis b-1807 bapt 1821 Norway House, daughter (I)-Alexander Kennedy (1781-1832) and Marie Aggathas (Agatha, Aggatha) Isbister aka Bear, Cree Metis/Indian (1782-1863)
    (II)-Alexander Kennedy Isbister Metis born Cumberland House bapt 1828, d-1883 London, recorded as a grandson of (I)-Joseph Ispister (1710-1771) and Indian girl.  Likely a great grandson through Aggathas but (I)-Thomas Isbister (1793-1836) could be a grandson?
    (II)-Caroline Isbister Metis born 1823, Swan River bapt 1831, Cumberland House
    (II)-James Isbister Metis born 1826, Swan River bapt 1831,Cumberland House
    (II)-Elizabeth Isbister Metis born 1827, Swan River bapt 1831, Cumberland House
In 1825 they were looking after two (II)-Kennedy Metis children at Cumberland House.

Lapointe is a location in Lake Superior, highly likely they are all Metis but no proof.
Joseph Desautels dit Lapointe likely son Basile Desautels did Lapointe and Catherine Henry; joined NWC (1801-1804) assigned 1818 Portage La Prairie 

Antoine Desautels dit Lapointe likely son Basile Desautels did Lapointe and Catherine Henry; joined NWC (1803-1821) assigned Fort Dauphin (1815-1821) Athabasca,  HBC (1821-1823) Athabasca 

Supplice Desautels dit Lapointe likely son Basile Desautels did Lapointe and Catherine Henry; joined NWC (1815-1821) Michilmackinac, Fort William, Red River HBC (1821-1822) 

Jean Baptiste Desautels dit Lapointe (1797-1873) son Basile Desautels did Lapointe and Catherine Henry employed NWC (1812-1816) Red River as a canoeman, attended the trial of Reinhard & Mainville (1816-1818) then deserted to HBC (1819-1822) Lac La Pluie; married 1823 Lucie Laporte daughter Toussant Laporte and Margaret Piche
    Jean Baptiste Desautels dit Lapointe Metis (1830-1909)

Old North West Territories, birth, (II)-Thomas Dickson, Metis (1812-about 1833) son (I)-Robert Dickson (Mascotapah (Red Hair Man) (1768-1823) and Helen Totowin; 

Jean Baptiste Dorion Metis born 1812/13 likely in the Dakota's died 1849 Oregon son Pierre Dorion Metis (1780/82-1814) and Marie Aioe Laguivoise (Wihmunkewakan) (1786-1850) also known as Marie Aioe Dorion Venier Toupin; Jean married 1845 Washington Josephte Cayuse/Kiaus.  See 1780.

Charles Ducharme, Metis, b-1812 son Nicolas Antoine Charon Ducharme, b-1795 and Genevieve Cree; married Marie Vallee, b-1825 N.W.T. daughter Antoine Vallee and Susanne Lefebvre..

Ninian Edwards is Governor of the Illinois Territory.

Henry Fisher Sr. d-1827 of Prairie du Chien, New France (Wisconsin) and was an independent trade, he departed at the outbreak of war (1812) for Red River.  Joined HBC (1821-1822) but was believed employed NWC and  He took his two children with him
    Alexander Fisher, likely Metis joined NWC (1815-1821) HBC (1822-1825) IIe a Crosse, English River, and Nelson River 
    Henry Fisher, likely Metis born 1800, Red River, d-1855, joined NWC (1817-1821) Fort des Prairies, son Madeleine Gauther Metis; married  Marguerite La Framboise b-1805

Cecilia Frariot, Ottawa Metis, b-1812, arrived 1833 Grand River, wife of Fransis Frariot, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.

Isabella Finley, Metis, born 1812 Spokane, Washington daughter Jacques Raphael (Jacko) Finlay, Metis (1768-1828) and Indian woman or could be the child of James Finlay, Metis, b-1794 or Thornburn Finlay, Metis, b-1795 or Bonhomme Finlay, Metis, (1795-1821).

George Fleet, married, 1812 Margaret (Peggy) Wjitford, b-1796 NWT daughter James Peter Whitford, b-1771 and Sarah Native.

Joseph Gagnon Jr. born 1812-1814, North West son Joseph Gagnon Sr. born 1776-1778 possible son Joseph Gagnon living Rue Vallier, Quebec 1768-1769, as listed 1831-1838 census Red River and 1768-1772 inspector of chimneys (H-1758).

Alexis Goulet b-1812 joined HBC (1829-1835) Brandon House and Red River son Jacques Goulet and Genevieve Desmarsis; married Josephte Severight daughter John Severight and Pouise Roussin
    Roger Goulet Metis
    Sarah Goulet Metis
    Elzear Goulet Metis
    Socur Goulet Metis
    Guillemine Goulet Metis
    Leonide Goulet Metis
    Maxime Goulet Metis

North West, Pierre Falcon, married, Mary Grant, sister of Cuthbert Grant (1793-1854). 

(I)-John Garton (1784-1831) joined HBC (1812-1831) Eastman, Whale River Albany and Moose Factory were he died
    (II)-John Garton Metis (1828-1911) born in Indian Country, joined HBC (1847-1888) Fort Coulonge, Moose and Red River. 

Eastman, birth (II)-Robert Gladman, Metis (1808-1816) son  (I)-George Gladman (1765-1821) and Mary More (Moar) an Indian woman from Moose Factory (1774-1858)

James Grant assumed control of the Fond du Lac Department for the N.W.C. 

(I)-Peter Henderson (1795-1863) joined HBC (1812-1825) Albany, Ile-a-la Crosse, Qu'Appelle (Fort Ellice) Brandon House and Red River.  Married Charlotte Yorstone a Cree Woman.  Retired Red River.
    (II)-Anne Henderson Metis bapt 1829
    (II)-Jane Henderson Metis bapt 1829
    (II)-Peter Henderson Metis bapt 1829
    (II)-Betsy Henderson Metis bapt 1829
    (II)-Margaret Henderson Metis bapt 1832
    (II)-Charles Henderson Metis bapt 1834 d-1863

(I)-Francois Heron (1794-1840) Irish, Joined HBC (1812-1839) York Factory, assigned Cumberland, then Edmonton House (1817-1821), on Bow River 1822-23), MacKenzie River 1823, Red River (1824-1829), Columbia (1829-1835).  Had a least three wives, a wife in Londonderry, married 1835 Red River Isabella Chalifoux and Josephte Clark dit Boucher.  Some or all of the children are likely Metis
    (II)-Edward Heron 
    (II)-Jane Mary Heron 
    (II)-Frances Heron 
    (II)-Jemima Heron 
    (II)-Catherine Heron 
    (II)-George Heron 

(I)-Joseph Howse (1774-1852) HBC surveyed Nelson River from York Factory to Spirit Lake (Manitoba)  

Paint Creek House: (Alberta)  birth (II)-Jenny (Jane) Howse, Metis, died February 27, 1830 daughter (I)-Joseph Howse (Howes) (1774-1852) employee HBC (1795-1815) and Indian Woman

Madeline Jeaudrau, Ottawa Metis, b-1812, arrived 1816 Mackinac, wife Michael Jeandrau Sr. Ottawa Metis, listed March 29, 1836 treaty.

Charles Jordan Sr. b-1791 Terrebone, Malbay likely Metis is employed NWC (1812-1821) in the King's Posts which is a string of forts north of the St. Lawrence River and later HBC 1821-1844, one son is noted 
    Charles Jordon Jr. Metis b-1812 joined HBC (1833-1848) King's Posts and Minigan.

Brandon House, birth (II)-James Kennedy, Metis, baptized October 4, 1820, Norway House died before 1829 son (I)-Alexander Kennedy (1781-1832) employed HBC (1798-1829) and, Aggathas (Agatha, Aggatha) aka Mary Isbister and Bear (1782-1863), Cree Metis:

(III)-Peter Kipling, Metis, b-1812 Portage La Prairie, (Manitoba) son (II)-John (James) Kipling, Metis, b-1781, Red River des Metis, (others suggest a native of Hudson Bay) died September 25, 1825, Red River, and Nancy a Native, b-1840/1843. 

Margaritta La Croix, Ottawa Metis, b-1812, arrived 1815 Mackinac, wife Francois La Croix, Ottawa Metis b-1802, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.  

(I)-John Lee Lewes (1792-1872) employed HBC (1801-1821) east of Rockies HBC (1821-1853) partly Columbia District, married 1812 Cumberland House, (II)-Francoise (Frances) Ballenden, Metis (1790-1900) daughter (I)-John Ballenden b-1757 and country wife in Fort Severn, a Cree woman, John had another wife in Orkney who requested in 1801 he be sent home but was denied.  He had two wives, one in Orkney,  one in Canada a (II)-Jean Ballenden (1790/1800-1889), daughter of (I)-John Ballenden b-1757 and a Plains Cree woman. In a will written at Edmonton House on March 21, 1849, four of his children were listed, but eight in total were recorded. They were 
     (II)-Francoise Lewes Metis b-1812 Red River
     (II)-Adolphus Lewes Metis (1821-1856), 
     (II)-Albert Lewes Metis bap.1833 Oxford House
     (II)-Frederick Lewes Metis bap.1833 Oxford House
     (II)-John GeorgeLewes Metis bap.1835 Oxford House
     (II)-Emma Lewes Metis bap.1835 Oxford House
     (II)-Elizabeth Lee Lewes Metis (1837-1897) born Cumberland House 
     (II)-Nancy [Anne] Lee Lewes Metis (1842-1930) born Fort Simpson.

(II)-Francoise (Frances) Lewes, Metis b-1812 Red River daughter (I)-John Lee Lewes (1792-1872) and (II)-Francoise (Frances) Ballenden, Metis (1790-1900).

Jean Baptiste Lepine married 1812 Charlotte Saulteaux (Chippewa Native).

Manuel Lisa (1772-1826) built Fort Lisa named after his 2nd wife just north of present day Omaha, Nebraska.  She was a white woman, his first and third wives were Indian.  Manuel was a bigamist as were many other mountain men.

LIVINGSTONE FAMILY because this doesn't sound right I am grouping this family in one area for easy correction

Duncan Livingstone Sr Metis joined NWC (1819-1821) & HBC (1821-1828) New Caledonia were he was killed by his half brother Jean Baptize "Waccan" Boucher Metis b-1789 Red River and they had a common Cree mother.  Others say the Carrier Indians killed him.
    Duncan Livingstone Metis Jr. (1797-1828) born Red River or Athabasca married 1824 a Cree woman from McLeod Lake and they had one son b-1825 Fort Sain James

(I)-Neil Livingston b-1763 Scotland married 1780's Anne born 1764 arrived Quebec 1819
    (II)-Donald Livingstone (1785/91-1878) born Scotland was first noted 1812 at Mackinaw, married 1812 Anne (Nancy) McGillivray (McGilvera) b-1790 Scotland died 1841 Iowa.  This is highly unlikely unless he had a 2nd marriage 1811 to Indian or Metis.  He had a 3rd marriage to Maria Foust.  
    (II)-James Livingstone (1795-1845) born Scotland married 1818 Marion Buie
    (II)-Hugh Livingstone (1800-1847) born Scotland married 1830 Red River Isabella Rose daughter Alexander Rose and Lilia b-1813
    (II)-Flora Livingstone (1803-1845) married Samuel Henderson may be a niece
    (II)-John Livingstone (1808-1847) married 1834 (II)-Sophia McDonald Metis (1811-1835)
    (II)-Duncan Livingstone (1807-1832)  

(II)-Donald Livingstone (1785/91-1878) born Scotland son (I)-Neil Livingston b-1763 Scotland married 1780's Anne born 1764 arrived Quebec 1819, Donald was first noted 1812 at Mackinaw, married 1812 Anne (Nancy) McGillivray (McGilvera) b-1790 Scotland died 1841 Iowa' 2nd marriage Maria Foust. This first marriage is highly unlikely unless he had a 2nd marriage 1811 to Indian or Metis.   The family moved to Iowa 1840 
     (III)-Niel Livingstone Metis born 1812 Red River
    (III)-Mary Livingstone Metis b-1815 Pembina married 1832 Roderick McBeath (1803-1855)
    (III)-Nancy (Ann) Livingstone Metis b-1815/17 married 1834 (I)-Donald Southerland (1778-1872)
    (III)-John Livingstone Metis born 1820
    (III)-Catherine Livingstone Metis born 1821
    (III)-Margaret Livingstone Metis bapt 1823
    (III)-Flora Livingstone Metis bapt 1825 married Samuel Henderson
    (III)-Daniel Livingstone Metis born 1828

(II)-James Livingstone (1795-1845) born Scotland married 1818 Marion Buie (Sarah (Sally) Bowie (Buie) (1796-1884) born Scotland but I would be surprised if this is correct?
    (III)-Isabella Livingstone b-1820 married 1836 Angus Matheson
    (III)-Daniel Livingstone bapt 1821 Red River d-1901 Iowa
    (III)-Alexander Livingstone bapt-1823 
    (III)-John bapt-1825
Livingstone bapt-1827
Livingstone bapt-1829
(III)-David Livingstone bapt-1831
    (III)-Mary Anne
Livingstone baptt-1833
Livingstone bapt-1836
Livingstone bapt-1838

(II)-Hugh Livingstone Sr (1800-1847) born Scotland married 1830 Red River Isabella Rose daughter Alexander Rose and Lilia b-1813
    (III)-Hugh Livingstone Jr
    (III)-Nancy Livingstone bapt 1831
    (III)-Duncan Livingstone bapt 1832
    (III)-Loelia (Lily)Livingstone  bapt 1834
    (III)-Isabella Livingston born Iowa
    (III)-Mary Livingston born Iowa
    (III)-Nathaniel Livingston born Iowa
    (III)-Hugh Livingston born Iowa
    (III)-Margaret Livingston born Iowa
    (III)-Rachel Livingston born Iowa

(III)-Niel Livingstone Metis born 1812 Red River des Metis son (II)-Donald Livingstone b-1785/91 married 1812 Anne (Nancy) McGillivray (McGilvera) is living St. John, Red River in 1870.  (II)-Donald was at Mackinaw in 1812.  However Niel married 1835 Catherine Manson (1815-1862)
    (IV)-Duncan Livingstone Metis  bapt 1836
    (IV)-Jessy Livingstone Metis bapt 1838
    (IV)-Ann Livingstone Metis bapt 1840
    (IV)-James Livingstone Metis bapt 1842, d-1843
    (IV)-Catherine Livingstone Metis bapt 1846
    (IV)-Duncan Livingstone Metis bapt 1836

Samel Livingstone Metis (1831-1897) is at Fort Edmonton 1865.

Thomas Logan, Metis, b-1812, Sault Ste Marie son Robert Logan and Mary a Native;  married Mary Ann Dease, b-1812 daughter John Warren Dease, b-1795 and Genevieve Benoit, b-1797.

Mary Julique Louisignan, Ottawa Metis, b-1812, Detroit daughter, Francis Louisignon, and Mary J. Ottawa Metis, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.  Lives in Detroit.

Donald MacKenzie established a trading post at Lewisten, Idaho.

(I)-Andrew McDermot (1783-1881) an Irishman joined HBC (1812-1824) (Manitoba) Red River, married Mary an Indian Woman bapt 1832
    (II)-Helena (Ellen) McDermot Metis bapt 1821 Norway House married 1836 Thomas Bird Metis son James Thomas (1800-1892)
    (II)-Biddy McDermot Metis bapt 1821
    (II)-Mary McDermot Metis b-1816 bapt 1821 married 1846 (I)-Richard Lane (1816-1877)
    (II)-Catherine McDermot Metis b-1827 married 1845 (III)-Thomas Truthwaite bapt 1845
    (II)-Thomas McDermot Metis bapt 1825 d-1849

(I)-Archibald McDonald (1790-1853) joined HBC (1812-1844) assigned to help settlers to Red River (1812-1820) assigned Ile-a-la Crosse (Saskatchewan) (1820-1821) assigned Columbia District (1821-1844)
1st married 1823 Fort George Princess Raven d-1824 daughter Chief Comconly
    (II)-Ranald McDonald Metis (1824-1894)
2nd marriage 1825 Fort George (II)-Jane Klyne Metis b-1810 daughter (I)-Michel Klyne a Dutchman and native woman
    (II)-Angus McDonald Metis (1826-1843)
    (II)-Archibald McDonald Metis (1828-1868)
    (II)-Allen McDonald Metis (1832-1891)
    (II)-Mary McDonald Metis (1834-1860)
    (II)-John McDonald Metis (1836-1836)
    (II)-John McDonald Metis (1837-1861)
    (II)-Donald McDonald Metis (1839-1845)
    (II)-James McDonald Metis (1839-1845)
    (II)-Samuel McDonald Metis (1841-1891)
    (II)-Joseph  McDonald Metis (1843-1845)
    (II)-Benjamin McDonald Metis (1844-1845)
    (II)-Angus McDonald Metis (1846-1867)

Hugh (Laird) McGillis (1767-1848) of Leech Lake departed for Fort William Michipicoten and Lesser Slave Lake.  

Joseph McGillivray Metis (1790-1832) joined NWC 1812 at Michillimackinac and NWC/HBC (1813-1828) Columbia District.   Joseph McGillivray appears to have had at least one wife, a Françoise Bouché, and three children: 
    Hector McGillivray Metis (1816-1837), 
    Alfred McGillivray Metis  
    Murdoch McGillivray Metis 

Nancy McGulpin, Ojibwa Metis, b-1810, arrived 1812 Mackinac daughter George McGulpin Sr., Ojibwa Metis, b-1762, Mackinac and Ojibwa Woman, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.

Alexander McGulpin, Ojibwa Metis, b-1812 Mackinac son George McGulpin Sr., Ojibwa Metis, b-1762, Mackinac and Ojibwa Woman, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.

(I)-John McNab of Moose Fort, Hudson Bay became the first H.B.C. officer to visit Montreal.  Moose Fort for the past 7 years had noticed the Canadians coming and going to Montreal with relative ease.  (I)-John McNab former governor of York Fort organized an expedition to Montreal including James Russell, Peter Spence, Alexander Belly and three other servants to accompany him.  The first leg of the journey is to Fort Abbi (Abitibi) whose master is Richard Good Master.  He is to provide two more men and provisions.  He must have known that Fort Abitibi was chronically short of provisions as HBC employees had ventured further south in 1794 to Fort Timiskaming..

Louis Nowlin (Nolin), Ojibwa Metis, b-1788 arrived Sault Ste Marie, married Mary Ojibwa Metis b-1802 Sault Ste Marie, listed March 28., 1836 treaty.

Julia Oakes, Ojibwa Metis, b-1812, arrived 1835 Grand River, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.  Rejected as mother a Lac Du Flambeau Indian.

(II)-Pierre Pambrun (1792-1841) son (I)- Andrew Dominique Pambrun and Angelique Hyracque joined NWC? (1812-1815), HBC (1815-1841) He served in the War of 1812 and reached the rank of lieutenant in the French Canadian Voltigeur regiment of the British army.
Served Red River, Cumberland House, York Factory, (1815-1822)
Bow River expedition (1822-1823)
Fort Edmonton 1823, Lesser Slave Lake (1823-1824), Fort Kilmaurs(1824-1825), Babine (1825-1830)
New Caledonia, Columbia District (1825-1841)   He had three wives the first being native women and children not identified ; 3rd wife married 1821, churched December 8, 1838 Fort Vancouver Catherine (Kitty) Horteuse Umfreville Metis daughter Thomas Umfreville and Anne Turner Cree/Metis (1805-1886)
He formalized his marriage 1838 to Catherine (Kitty) Humpherville, Metis daughter of Thomas Humpherville b-1740 and Anna Turner Cree/Metis b-1785 Moose Factory, Their children were
    (III)-Andre (Andrew) Dominique Pambrun Metis b-1821 Cumberland House, d-1895, married Marie (Mary) Cook (1824-1912)
    (III)-Pierre Chrysologue Pambrun Metis Jr. b-1823 Fort Edmonton, d-1890/1902, he stayed in Manitoba and became involved in the Riel Rebellion, losing an arm in the process
    (III)-Marie Pambrun Metis (1826-1890), married (I)-Forbes Barely (1812-1873
    (III)-Alexander Pambrun Metis (1829-1912),
    (III)-Thomas Pambrun Metis (1832-1896), born Columbia District, married 1st. Shoshone, 2nd Jane Tenday Indian
    (III)-Jean Baptiste/John Pambrun Metis b-1839 
    (III)-Alexander Pambrun Metis  (1829-1912)
    (III)-Maria Pambrun Metis 
    (III)-Ada (Adele) Pambrun Metis b-1835
    (III)-Harriet Pambrun Metis (1837-1916)
    (III)-Sarah Pambrun Metis (1841-1844)

Chief Pegius (1774-1864) a Saulteaux befriended the Selkirk settlers by showing them how to grow corn and offering warriors to defend them.  Pegius was rewarded for his kindness by eventually trespassing on his reserve and violating his 1817 treaty with Selkirk., 

Moose Factory, birth (II)-Robert (Frederick) Stewart, Metis son (I)-Andrew Stewart (1789-1822) Scotland, employed HBC (1811-1822) and (II)-Frances (Fanny) Thomas, Metis, daughter (I)-John Thomas (1751-1822)  Sent to Scotland to school in 1821

Charles Pelletier, Metis, b-1791/98, died December 28, 1853 Red River son Antoine Peltier and Marguerite a Native; married 1812, Red River des Metis, Suzanne Bercier, b-1801 NWT daughter Alexis Bercier, (1768-1840) and Marguerite Metis b-1779.

Louisa Piquette, Ojibwa Metis, b-1812, Sault Ste. Marie, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.

(V)-Jean Baptiste Riel Metis, April 21, 1785, Berthier, Quebec, died April 4, 1868, Montreal, [Ancestor of Louis Riel of Red River fame] son (IV)-Jean Baptiste Riel (1757-1792) and Marie Antoinette Henault dit DeLorme Metis,  married, 1812 IIe a la Crosse, Saskatchewan, Marguerite Boucher, Metis, b-1785/90, daughter Lucien (Louis) Etienne Boucher and Chipeweyan Woman. 

Jean Baptiste Rocbrune, married, about 1812, Louise Sauteuse (Chippewa).

N. Roi born 1812 died September 15, 1837 LaPointe, Wisconsin.

(III)-John Rowand (Rowland) Metis (1812-1865) son (II)-John Rowand Sr. (1787-1854) and Louise (Losette) Umphreville Metis, joined HBC (1833-1855) Saskatchewan District.  Married (II)-Margaret Harriott Metis daughter (I)-John Edward Harriott (1797-1866) and Margaret Ann Pruden
    (IV)-Maria Rowand Metis b-1849
    (IV)-Adelaide Rowand Metis b-1852 married John Balsille
    (IV)-Margaret Louida Rowand Metis b-1857, married Andrew Robert, James Bannerman
    (IV)-John James Alexander Rowand Metis bapt-1861, died before-1882
    (IV)-Anonymous Rowand Metis d-1862
    (IV)-Edward Robert Tache Rowand Metis bapt-1864
    (IV)-William Rowand Metis 

Francois Roy (LeRoy) b-1784 son Joseph LeRoy (1744-1825) and Marguerite Oskinanotame (1760-1835); who married Therese Le Cuyer is operating a trading post from 1812 to 1818 at the portage between the Fox and Wisconsin River. 

(I)-Archibald Stewart Spence joined HBC (1812-1823) Churchill, Severn River District, Red River.  Listed 1841 with wife and 7 children on list to Whidbey Island, south shore of Pugets Sound, married (1820-1823) churched 1828 Peggy Margaret Cree Indian of Severn Factory
    (II)-Jacobina Spence Metis bapt 1824
    (II)-Margaret Spence Metis bapt 1825
    (II)-Archibald Spence Metis bapt 1830
    (II)-James Stewart Spence bapt 1838

(I)-William Swanson (1794-1865) employed HBC (1812-1865), married 1st. about 1815, (II)-Anne (Nancy) Brown, Metis daughter (I)-Joseph Brown (1772-1818) and Elizabeth Indian or Metis; 2nd marriage about 1836, Betsy Hister Scotland; 3rd wife married August 4, 1840, Frances Robinson Metis (1821-1876) daughter John Robinson of Michipicoten  (Northern Ontario) and Ojibwa Indian woman.  William spent his adult life at Moose, so he likely married his three wives there and had his children there.  
Joined HBC (1812-1865) Moose District.  
Married 1st. (II)-Anne (Nancy) Brown Metis daughter (I)-Joseph Brown (1772-1818)
    (II)-Elizabeth Swanson Metis b-1816 Moose Factory
    (II)-Anne Swanson Metis b-1818 Moose Factory
    (II)-William Swanson Metis (1819-1843) Moose Factory joined HBC (1835-1843) Moose and Columbia Departments
    (II)-Joseph Swanson Metis b-1821 Moose Factory joined HBC (1835-1846) Moose, Lake Superior, California  and Columbia Districts
    (II)-Charlotte Swanson Metis b-1824 Moose Factory
    (II)-John Swanson Metis (1826/27-1872) Moose Factory joined HBC (1842-1872) Pacific Coast
    (II)-Sarah Swanson Metis b-1828 Moose Factory
    (II)-James Swanson Metis b-1832 Moose Factory 
Married 2nd. about 1836 Betsy Hister, their child listed as native
    (II)-Henry Swanson Metis (1837-1887) Moose Factory joined HBC (1851-1887) married 1864 Stromness, Scotland, Margaret Isbister
Married 3rd. (II)-Frances Robinson Metis (1821-1876) daughter (I)-John Robinson of Michipicoten and Ojibwa woman
    (II)-Albert Swanson Metis (1841-1910) Moose Factory joined HBC (1855-1904)
    (II)-Alexander Swanson Metis (1843-1858) Moose Factory joined HBC (1857-1858) Moose Factory
    (II)-Thomas Swanson Metis b-1844 Moose Factory joined HBC (1859-1884) Moose Factory became a freeman
    (II)-Frances Caroline Swanson Metis b-1846 Moose Factory 
    (II)-Robert Swanson Metis bapt 1847 Moose Factory joined HBC (1863-1870) Albany River and Moose Factory
    (II)-George Swanson Metis b-1848 Moose Factory joined HBC (1863-1879) Rupert's River and Eastman
    (II)-Richard Swanson Metis bapt-1852 Moose Factory joined HBC (1866-1887) Albany, Moose, Rupert's River 
    (II)-Emily Swanson Metis bapt-1852 Moose Factory
    (II)-Jane Swanson Metis bapt 1854 Moose Factory
    (II)-Sophia Swanson Metis bapt 1856 Moose Factory
    (II)-Charles Swanson Metis bapt-1858 ,joined HBC (1871-1892) Moose and Eastman, has wife and children

(I)-John Tod aka Todd (1794-1882) joined HBC (1811-1850) York, Severn, Island Lake assigned  (1823-1833) New Caledonia (1833-1850) York to New Caledonia and Columbia.  John Tod had a complex family life of five successive wives and ten or more children. While at Island Lake, he had a relationship with Catherine Birston, mixed descent daughter of Magnus Birston. They had one child, 
    (II)-James Metis (1818-1904). He abandoned this wife and child.
At Fort McLeod he took on an unnamed native wife, called the singling girl, probably Sekani, and fathered at least one daughter. 
    (II)-Unnamed Metis daughter.  He abandoned this wife and child. 
In the Nelson district he was the companion of a local native woman. 
Elizabeth Waugh Metis d-1857 daughter Magnus Birston, she was from Red River as maid to Mary Jones and was his next wife with whom he had 
    (II)-Emmaline Jean Tod Metis (1835-1928) born England who married William Henry Newton.
 Elizabeth died at a London asylum, May 12, 1857. 
On August 19, 1863, John Tod married Sophie a.k.a. Martha Lolo (1826-83). Their children were 
    (II)-Mary Tod Metis b-1843 Thomoson River (Kamloops), Columbia District
    (II)-John Tod Metis b-1845 Thomoson River (Kamloops), Columbia District
    (II)-Alex Tod Metis b-1847 Thomoson River (Kamloops), Columbia District
    (II)-Isaac Tod Metis b-1849, Thomoson River (Kamloops), Columbia District
    (II)-William Tod Metis (1853-1881) Vancouver Island
    (II)-Elizabeth Tod Metis b-1856 Vancouver Island
    (II)-Simeon/Tim Tod Metis b-1859 Vancouver Island
Sophie died on September 9, 1883.

(III)-Philip Turner Metis (1812-1882) son (II)-Joseph Turner Metis Sr. (1783-1865) and Indian woman, joined HBC (1823-1882)  Moose Factory, retired to Lake Superior.
    (IV)-Joseph Alexander Turner Metis b-1838 Moose Factory married Mary b-1840 and Elizabeth b-1843
    (IV)-Barbara Turner Metis b-1845 Moose Factory
    (IV)-Robert Turner Metis b-1848 Moose Factory
    (IV)-Samuel Turner Metis b-1851 Moose Factory
    (IV)-George Turner Metis b-1853 Moose Factory
    (IV)-Thomas Turner Metis b1859 Moose Factory
    (IV)-Ellen Jane Turner Metis b-1865 Moose Factory

Some people recruited to the 1812-1815 war are:

Jean Baptiste Cadotte born 1790 of Ste Genevieve, Champlain, Quebec.
Francois Guernon born 1790 St Barthelemi, Quebec.
Ambroise Gagnon born 1792 St. Celestin, Quebec.
Louis Gagnon born 1791 Ste. Agnes, Charlelioux, Quebec.
Firmin Gagnon born 1793 Ste. Cecile du Bic, Rimouski, and Quebec.
Francois Gagnon born 1791 St. Thomas, Yamaska, Quebec.
Pierre Gagnon born 1789 St. Francois, Montmorancy, Quebec.
Francois Gagnon born 1794 Auxcoudres, Charlevoix, Quebec.
Jacques Gagnon born 1796 Baie St. Paul, Charlevoix, Quebec.
Simon Gagnon born 1787 St. Joachim, Montmorency, Quebec.
Pierre Gagnon born 1795 St. Jean, Montmerency, Quebec.

Michel Brisbois (1759-1837) of Prairie du Chien, on the Upper Mississippi, remained relatively neutral during the war, but sent his son Charles Brisbois (1798-1847) north towards Red River with his brother-in-law Henry M. Fisher.  This resulted in Michel's arrest in July of 1816 on charges of treason, and he is taken to St. Louis for trial and is acquitted of the charges.  Ironically in 1819 he was appointed Chief Justice for Crawford County, Michigan.  

Chief Factor William Hemmings Cook at York Factory is messing with the squaws (iskwao), according to (II)-Miles Macdonell (1767-1828) of the H.B.C.  (Squaw is a very insulting English word.)

Fort Clatsop of the Oregon Territory built by Lewis and Clark expedition where they wintered 1805/06 was still intact this year.

Fort Henry, at Kingston Ontario, was built this year on Port Henry, beside Lake Ontario, to guard the outlet to the St. Lawrence River.

George Schindler of Mackinac, became crippled and opened a school for boys.  His wife, Therese Lasallere, took over his fur trading business with the Indians.  Hercules L Douusman of the American Fur Company convinced Therese to give up fur trading and to open a school for girls- which she did.

During the Canadian American war of 1812 Fort George was built above Fort Mackinac to defend against the American Army.

Many historians totally ignore the existence of the Metis Red River Settlement that is decades old.  It is noteworthy that, prior to the European invasion of Red River, there were thousands of Metis settlers in the region called Red River.  The Red River des Metis Settlement dates to about 1775 or earlier.  It is noteworthy that there are over 180 Metis births at Red River Settlement.  This is amazing considering most families travel on the two annual bison (buffalo) hunts as well as on freighting, trapping or trading activities.  It is also not uncommon for one family in the Metis Settlements to care for 15 young children while the parents are away. 

Fort William hosted the annual meeting of NWC traders which numbered some 2,000 this year.

Ramsey Crook of the American Fur Company wrote the Congress of the United States to prevent exclusion of foreigners in the American fur trade.  He argued that the Canadian (French) boatmen are indispensable to the success of the trade.  They submit quietly to proper control, they are patient docile and preserving.  They are harmless in themselves.  The advice was taken and Canadians were employed for the next 20 years, even after the merger of the N.W.C. and the H.B.C.

The Hudson Bay Company settlers are warned about the Canadian freemen and half-breeds (Metis) who are not to be trusted being, in general, outcasts from the company. The Irish and Scots at York say that they are being treated like felons. Some attempted mutinous activity and were returned to Scotland.   (I)-Thomas Douglas (1771-1820) appointed (II)-Miles Macdonell (1767-1828)  as Hudson Bay Company Governor of the Assiniboia, and he preceded the first British settlers to Red River.  He had a belligerent attitude that exacerbated conflict between the British Colony, The Metis Red River Colony and the North West Company, and he suffered severe emotional instability. 

John Tanner stated that an Ottawa man, Shaw-gwaw-goo-sink, introduced maize cultivation among the Ojibwa at Netley Creek in the Red River area.  This is likely untrue as the women are in charge of agriculture and the Ojibwa have been raising maize for centuries.  Alexander Henry (1764-1814) also claimed credit for providing the first seed for the Ottawa gardens.  This also is unlikely true as most maize seed into Red River is from the Mandan in North Dakota.  It is noteworthy that both the Ottawa and Ojibwa are age old farmers.  Red River at this time had a road running from Fort Douglas (Fort Garry) to Fort Pembina (Fort Dair), and another from Fort Douglas to Birsay Village and onward to Portage Des Prairie.  Many gardens existed at the forks of the Red River, planted by the Metis, Ojibwa and Cree families.  Corn and potatoes provided a good alternative to wild rice.  Peter Fiddler of the British contingent had built Fort Dair this year at the mouth of the Pembina River. 

Dr. Bigsby estimated that the Great Lakes Corp. included 3 regiments of 800 to 1,000 men, each mostly being voyagers of the North West Company.  Among the voyagers and Metis there was much insubordination, pipe smoking, low bowing cortices, and talking and inquiry as to espousal's health; small talk.  Even in danger they continued to laugh, not stopping their noisy tongues. There was no military seriousness.  

Four citizens of Peoria (Poiria), Illinois testified at Cahokia, Illinois to John Haws, Justice of the Peace, that Potowattomi Chief, Main Pock, and his band at Proria, Illinois, were stealing.  They include Louis Bisson; a Peoria trader, Jean Baptiste; Champlain of Poiria, Joseph Dagenais and Nathaniel Pope an agent for Thomas D.L. who lives opposite mouth of the Missouri on east bank of the Mississippi.

The British army at Mackinaw included the traders Askin, Langlade, Michel Cadotte and Joseph Rolette.  (I)-Robert Dickson (1768-1823), Indian trader, and John Askin jr., Indian Agent, commanded the Indians.  (I)-John Johnson  (1762?-1828) or (1742-1830?), an Irishman, Crawford, Pothier, Armitinger, La Croix, Rolette, Franks and Livingstone accompany the Canadians with 260 others.  Mackinac fell on July 17 without a shot being fired.

The Great Lake Superior regions was historically, at least for 400 years,  considered "middle ground' where various cultures meet to trade, to encourage alliances through inter-cultural marriages, to trade information and debate issues.  When the Anglo-Americans arrived they turned this multi-culture middle ground into borders or frontiers destroying peace.  The Ojibwa population that governed the region by the wishes of the majority.

After the fall of Fort Mackinac and Fort Dearborn, the Natives began to flood to Tecumseh and the Canadian defense.  Tecumseh and his one hundred and fifty Native warriors expanded to six hundred. 

The Metis, with much civility, placed themselves at the service of the poor Scottish party.  Peltier showed them to land already cleared and ready for cultivation.  He had provided horses and carts to assist in building Fort Daer.  He also agreed to lend his cart and canoe for the summer to a family.  Baptiste Roy received and took care of their seed grain.  Francois Delorme and his Metis son supervised the building of their first dwelling.  They also smoothed relations with the Indians who resented the intrusion of the Bay people.  Fifteen Metis headed by Jean Baptiste Lagimodiere, alias Lagemodiere, Lagimodiere, and Lajimodiere (1778-1855), a French freeman, and included Bostonnias Pangman, b-1778, a Metis, conducted a hunting party to help feed and establish the Scots.  The Metis Isham, likely the son of (I)-James Isham (a bigamist with a wife in Britain and Canada), supervised the preliminary work of breaking the soil and soon became their interpreter, while his son became a hunter for the Scots.

Later the Scots would ask to retain the likes of Bostonnias Pangman, b-1778, a Metis, who went to work with John McLeod at the H.B.C.'s Turtle River Post and Jean Baptiste Lagimodiere (Lagemodiere) (1778-1855), a French Freeman, as the colony hunters.  At this time there was no conflict between the English and French settlers.  The Metis, however, were a bit apprehensive about what the real intentions of the H.B.C. were toward the Red River community.

Earlier, one of his agents, Robert Simple, lost his life in a barbarous native massacre brought on by his own ineptitude.  The Metis are furious with this intrusion because they know that the British Hudson Bay Company was behind this action, but they had pity on this shabby, motley group and offered provisions and showed them how to make sod homes, less they perish in their first winter.

The (I)-Thomas Douglas (1771-1820) scheme did not allow time for proper planning. The Hudson Bay Company settlers went hungry in 1812 and 1813, having no provisions except the charity of the North West Company and the Metis of Red River des Metis. The Selkirk settlers attempted to purchase corn from the Ottawa and Bungee (Ojibwa) Indians at Dead River. 

Seventy five thousand displaced British American loyalists settled in the Southern Ontario peninsula.  All of Upper Canada, excluding Native Canadians, had a population of ninety four thousand, composed of English, Irish, Scotch, Dutch and German immigrants, in that order according to numbers. 

John MacDonnell of the North West Company appeared to be the first to replace the term Metis or Brule with the racist term Half Breed when referring to the Red River Peoples.  He believed that 'Red River is thinly inhabited, overrun by some rascally savages, and some Canadian Freemen and Half Breeds.'  He said, "The savages, in general, are great villains and most of the Freemen are not to be trusted and in general outcasts from our employ."

The ignorant Scottish squatters, not realizing the value of the maple tree, destroyed them for lumber and firewood, thereby destroying the maple sugar industry in the Metis Red River territory, which had been a thriving agricultural business for the Natives for at least three centuries.  The interesting anomaly between the two cultures is that the Europeans first order of business is to blindly impose their values on the environment, whereas the Native peoples make inquiries as to what works best for the benefit of all, then they experiment within this wisdom.  The former value is more efficient and the latter value is more effective.  This highlights an important cultural difference between eastern and western cultures.  Most Europeans do not understand the fundamental difference in belief and values between efficiency and effectiveness.

The first Bank in Canada, the Bank of Montreal, opened this year.  John Gray, an old fur trader, becomes the Bank's first President.

(V)-Archange Guron, alias Cadotte (b-1798), in testimony at the Sault in 1862, stated that (IV)-Jean Baptiste Cadotte (1797-1818) died 1812 near Fort George.  (IV)-Michel Cadotte (1764-1837) gave testimony at the Sault in 1823 placing his death as 1818.

Etienne Owayaissa, N.W.C., is in the Oregon Territory. 

The Lake Superior schooner, 'Fur Trader', was later lost while trying to shoot the St. Mary rapids to the lower lakes.

Robert Stuart discovered the Oregon South Pass, but (I)-John Jacob Astor (1763-1848) a German/American of the Pacific Fur Company forbids Stuart to reveal this vital route across the Rockies. It remained unknown until the Cree showed Jedediah Smith the pass in 1824.

This season the prairies are very dry.  The resulting fires drove off the animal population, and this resulted in widespread starvation among the People. 

The North West Company established Fort Cume-loups (Kamloops) 'meeting of the waters' across the river from the Pacific Fur Company fort established last year by David Stewart.

Some suggest there are practically no beaver left east of the Rocky Mountains about this time.

Fort Douglas was erected in 1812 by Miles McDonnell, in charge of the first Selkirk settlers, who arrived by way of Hudson Bay.  It was located on the banks of the Red River on the north side of a coulee which entered the river. After the coalition of the two companies NWC and HBC the general stores were opened in Fort Gibralter.

Maine separated from the State of Massachusetts.

Fort Ross in Sonoma County, California was managed by Peg-Legged Ivan Kuzkov (Kuskov).  This Russian fort the supplied the Russian Colonies in Alaska.  The Ross Colony contained 25 Russians and 80 Aluet Indians.  The Colony closed down in 1821. 

January 1:   Norway House, birth Amelia Connolly Metis, died January 8, Victoria daughter  William Connolly (Connoly) born Quebec died 1849 at Rat River House in the Athabasca Others suggest died 1848 Montreal 1st married Susanne a cree woman born Churchill died 1862 St. Boniface, Red River.  They had three children John, Amelia (b-1812) and William.  Some suggest this marriage was a life long marriage commitment according to the Country tradition, but in 1831 or 1832 he sent his wife and children back to Red River in order to marry Julia Woolrich of Montreal.

January 18:  Donald McKenzie, McLellan, Read and 11 men arrived overland from Missouri.  They said they had to go south to 40 degrees to avoid the Blackfoot where they discovered an old trading post built by Henry an American trader in 1809 on the Mad River.  The savages had killed everyone except Archibald Petton (Pelton) who escaped but had become mentally ill or demented as a result.  Some say he recovered from the ordeal.

April 4:  The Territory of New Orleans became the 18th State and by April 30, became known as Louisiana.  

April 30:   The United States and Territories were mobilizing for war against Canada.  This American war against Canada had two major objectives:

May:   Cadotte, Peace and John Askin are at Fond Du Lac, Minnesota, recruiting Ojibwa warriors.

June:   The Congress declared war on Canada on June 18, 1812.  The President did not support this President Madison’s War but he did sign the declaration of war.  On June 24 the Canadian North West Company notified Sir George Prevost at Quebec that the United States of American was at war with Canada.  The Americans had eight million people, with three million living in the part of the States bordering on Canada; which only had some five hundred thousand people.  Canada had an army of four thousand ,four hundred  and fifty men, and only one thousand and five hundred were west of Montreal to defend one thousand three hundred miles of border.   Major General Isaac Brock was building up Canada's fortifications and alliances with the Natives, knowing that when war broke out with the Americans, he had to take the offensive.  A month before the declaration of war, General Hull's troops left for Canada from Dayton, Ohio.

June 2:  N.W.T. birth Francois Lewis, Metis, son John J. Lewis, b-1791 and Margaret, Metis; married James Ballendine, Metis, b-1807 son John Ballendine and Jane Metis.   

June 4:  The Louisiana Territory was renamed the Missouri Territory.

July 2:   A search of an American Schooner at Fort Malden found all of General Hull's baggage, including his detailed war plans to attack Detroit River then, north of Fort Mackinac, to take St. Joseph Island to cut the Canadian North West trade route. On July 5, General William Hull arrived at Fort Detroit with two thousand five hundred men to confront the Canadian force of four hundred and fifty plus another one hundred fifty Natives under the command of Tecumseh at Fort Malden.  St. Joseph Island had forty five redcoats, but one hundred and eight French-Metis from Sault Ste Marie and surrounding territory and four hundred Ojibwa responded to the call to arms.   (6)-Louis Gurnoe is working out of La Pointe and Sault Ste Marie at this time and likely involved in the war.  Fort Mackinac, defended by sixty blue-coated regulars, on July 16 falls to the Canadians.  When the Chippewa of Lake Michigan heard the results, they assembled and took Fort Dearborn, slaughtering half the inhabitants in their retreat.

July 13:  Mickinaw fell to the famous volunteer contingent of 160 Metis Voyagers and 30 British regulars who regained Mackinaw in the war of 1812 and held this position until 1815 when treaty returned it to the Americans.  The Metis Voyagers returned to Drummond Island which ironically was also on American soil and they had to be relinquished in 1828.  The Metis Voyagers then moved to Penetanguishene, Simcoe County, Old Forte Ste Marie, at Fesserton and Coldwater and south of Lake Simcoe near Pefferlaw, York County.  Most if not all of these Metis were country marriages as a priest or missionary was a rare sight.  Fidelity, however was a marked characteristic among them.

July 15:   Charles Roberts commanded the British Post at St. Joseph Island and is ordered by Brock to attack Michillimakinac which is fifty miles away. Roberts sent (I)-Robert Dickson (Mascotapah) (1768-1823); a Red River Valley trader, with 180 voyagers, 45 men of the Tenth Royal Veterans, and 300 Indians against Michillimakinac. It is noteworthy that Michillimakinac only contained 59 men; 41 Americans and 18 Canadians, who immediately joined the other Canadians. The 41 Americans immediately surrendered the Fort without a shot being fired. 

August, 16:   The American, William Hull, surrendered Fort Detroit with an army of 2,500 men and is poised to invade Canada based on a rumor that 4,000 voyagers are marching against him.  Isaac Brock (1769-1812)  marches on Fort Detroit with only 300 men, but Tecumseh, (1768-1813), the Shawnee war Chief, is waiting at Fort Detroit with 600 warriors.  He also recruits 400 Canadians and dresses them in British uniforms to confuse the Americans.   The Americans have been watching the Indians perform their war dances and are terrified.   Tecumseh knows the Americans are terrified and deliberately parades his men in view of the Fort.   Brock ups the stakes but informs the Americans that it is not his intent to conduct a battle of annihilation, although he can't control the savages.  While the fear is still fresh, he orders his guns to commence firing on the Fort for the next two hours.  Fort Detroit wants three days to make up their minds, but are given three hours.  The British capture 2,200 prisoners and enough equipment and canon to equip an army.   A few weeks earlier, General William Hull, the American commander at Detroit, had crossed the border to proclaim: "You will be emancipated from tyranny and oppression and restored to the dignified station of freedom...I come prepared for every contingency".  General Hull had been so sure of victory that he had brought his young son, a married daughter and his two small grand children.  Many young soldiers had brought their wives.  The Canadian army now had seven hundred British and Canadians and six hundred Natives when they attacked Fort Detroit.  After the first attack, which killed a number of his officers, General William Hull surrendered the Fort and his 2,500 man army.

August 30:   The first of the poor evicted Scottish squatters, a party of eighteen persons, had wintered at York Factory on the mouth of the Nelson River .  Miles MacDonnell, (1769-1828), an agent of (I)-Tomas Douglas (1771-1820), then, this month, took the group on to Brandon House on the Assiniboine River.  The infamous (I)-Thomas Douglas of Selkirk (1771-1820) failed to give these people provisions or shelter.  Some claim he is just incompetent and that it wasn't out of malice.

September:  Some suggest that Miles MacDonnell (1769-1828) and the first Hudson Bay Company settlers arrived at Red River this month, and they selected the center of their settlement as Point Douglas on the west bank, only a mile or so away from the North West Company Post at Fort Gilbralter. William Auld at York was not pleased with the immigrants, and is believed by some to have attempted to sabotage the project.

October:   The Northwest Company offered its engages to Canada and their King. In October the Corps of Canadian Voyagers is created under the command of (II)-William McGillivray, Metis (1764-1825), esquire. It would be disbanded at Lachine on March 14, 1813. Some members of the Corps are:  Angus Shaw, Archibald Norman McLeod, Jean Baptiste, Alexander MacKenzie, Kenneth MacKenzie, John McDonell, James Stanley Goddard and Joseph McGillivray.

October 12:   The first voyager (engage canoeman) to fall during the British war was Pierre Rototte of the Corps of Canadian Voyageurs at St. Regis.  John McDonell and 35 men were taken prisoner.

October 13:   The Americans send 1,200 men streaming across the river just below the Niagara Falls to Queenston Heights to avenge the humiliation of the fall of Fort Detroit.  The British and Canadians pin down the Americans on the beach, but they make the high ground.  The Americans capture the British canon.  The field looks grim.   The fate of Canada is in the hands of 80 Mohawk warriors led by John Norton, a Metis, and they are outnumbered 15/1 .   The Mohawk's hit and run tactics confuse the Americans who become disoriented and are unable to get organized.  They are held in this state for ten hours until reinforcements arrive.  The Americans abandoned their positions and ran, in disorder, for their lives.  Their commander, Winfield Scott, surrenders 925 prisoners. 500 Americans are dead along with 100 British and Canadians.  A dozen Mohawks, including two Chiefs, have also fallen.   Barely four months into the war and two major American armies have fallen.    It is noteworthy that Isaac Brock didn't want to be in Canada and didn't trust the Canadians, but he gave Canada time to organize a defense against the American war of expansion.

October:   Another American account reads as follows:  In October Isaac Brock (1769-1812) administrator and commander of Upper Canada  lost his life to a sniper at Queenston Heights on the Niagara Peninsula however five hundred Iroquois and one thousand six hundred Canadians took the strategic hill and nine hundred American prisoners.  Brigadier Wadsworth surrenders seventy five officers in humiliation.  General Van Renselaer resigned in disgrace and General Smyth took command of the  American forces.   Tecumseh is recruiting warriors from 1,000 miles away to war on the Americans.  The war exploits are being talked about with the Indians from Mexico to the Arctic.

October 27:   A second group of displaced people, led by Owen Keveny, are unceremoniously dispatched at the forks of the Red and Assiniboine Rivers.  This again infuriated the Metis.  This group of squatters consists of one hundred and twenty, made up of Highlanders from the Hebrides and about twenty Irish; all dirt poor folks.   Several Hudson Bay Company Factors expressed their anger about this new settlement.  Again, (I)-Thomas Douglas (1771-1820) had thrown his displaced servants into the thicket without provisions, not even ploughs for cultivation.   Except for the generous assistance, again of the Red River Metis and the Hudson Bay Company Factors, these people would have perished, which lends credibility to those who contend that the Scots were expendable pawns of the English.  There was no milk in the Metis Colony and the Natives suggest fish broth to feed the babies, which proved satisfactory.

October:   The pork eaters of the Canadian North West Company, on October 1, 1812, formed the Corps of Canadian Voyagers.  They formed as an auxiliary unit and disbanded on March 14, 1813.  (IV)-Jean Baptiste Cadotte (1761-1818) and (IV)-Michel Cadotte (1764-1837) are coerced by the British to be interpreters during the war.  Jean Baptiste is seriously wounded and Michel lost an arm.

October:   The Plains fire of this year is the most devastating to hit the upper Saskatchewan since the arrival of the fur trade. Edmonton House was forced to send their men fifty miles away to fish. Bird had learned from a Sarcee band that, from Edmonton to the banks of the South Saskatchewan, there is not a bull to be seen nor a bit of dry ground unburned. They would burn again in 1813. This very seriously affected trade for the next few years. The Blood, Sarcee and Peigan tribes were driven down into present day Montana.

October 12:   (I)-John Palmer Bourke (Burke) born January 1791 Sligo, Lightford, County Mayo, Ireland, died 1851 St. James, Red River arrived Red River from Hudson Bay (1812-1846) mostly Red River; he was wounded at the Battle of Seven Oaks and fled to Norway House; he married June 11, 1821 Sault Ste Marie, (II)-Nancy Campbell Metis born about 1794, Sault Ste Marie, died July 8, 1887 St. James, Winnipeg, Manitoba, daughter (I)-John Archibald. Campbell born 1775 and Ninse a Dakota trading with the Wahpeton.  They had eight Metis children some of who are: 
    (II)-John Bourke Metis born about 1822 Red River Settlement, married (III)-Elizabeth Fidler likely the daughter of (II)-Thomas Fidler (1795-1875), 
        (II)-Ann Bourke Metis bapt 1856
        (II)-Ellen Bourke Metis bapt 1858
        (II)-Harriet Bourke Metis bapt 1861
        (II)-Edwin Bourke Metis bapt 1863
        (II)-William Bourke Metis bapt 1864
        (II)-Victoria Bourke Metis bapt 1885
        (II)-Isabella Bourke Metis bapt 1868
        (II)-Maria Bourke Metis bapt 1870
    (II)-Walter Bourke Metis born about 1823/25 d-1887 married Flora Hallet b-1830, 
    (II)-Nancy Bourke Metis born about 1827,
    (II)-Collin Bourke Metis born about 1829, 
    (II)-Andrew Bourke Metis born about 1830, 
    (II)-William Bourke Metis born about 1831.  


Gustang Cadotte, Ojibwa Metis, b-1813, arrived 1834 Black River, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.  Rejected lives out of district.

(II)-John Dugald Cameron, a Canadian is promoted to a partner in North West Company and assigned to the Lake Winnipeg department of Red River des Metis.

Pierre Cawanarde a Metis or Indian joined NWC 1813 at Bas de la Riviere near Lake Winnipeg for Columbia District. 

(II)-John Clarke, (1781-1852) left the Pacific Fur Company when Fort Astoria was sold and rejoined North West Company, returning to Montreal in 1814. to join the HBC in 1815 to be posted to Athabasca to replace (I)-Colin Robertson (1783-1842) who went to England.

Augustine Contwa, Ojibwa Metis, b-1813 Sault Ste Marie, listed March 28, 1826 treaty.

Louis Comtois dit Morin, b-1813 Red River des Metis son Etienne Comtois dit Mortin, b-1777, Canada and Marguerite Sarcy born between 1777-1787.

(I)-James Corrigal (1795-1874) joined HBC (1813-1832) York House, Churchill, Nelson House and Norway House, 
married 1834 Red River Catherine Flett Metis (b-1825*) b-1818 likely daughter William Flett
OR married 1sr (II)-Sarah Sutherland Metis (1777-1805).  
married 2nd Margaret Indian b-1803
I suspect the following children are from two or more James Corrigal's; (I)-James Corrigal b-1788 with HBC (1811-1821) and (I)-James Corrigal b-1784 with HBC (1812-1815) either man could have had a son (II)-James Corrigal b-1804 who married Anna Anderson Metis b-1810?? 
    (II)-William Corrigal Metis (bpt-1834-1836)
    (II)-Mary Corrigal Metis bpt-1836
    (II)-John Corrigal Metis bpt-1838 married 1848 (II)-Elizabeth Firth Metis bpt 1834
    (II)-James Corrigal Metis b-1839 married 1861 Isabella Sanders
    (II)-Edward Corrigal Metis (bpt-1840-d-1843)
    (II)-Caroline Corrigal Metis bpt-1842
    (II)-Nancy Corrigal Metis bpt-1843
    (II)-Margaret Corrigal b-1844 daughter James Corrigal and Anna Anderson Metis b-1810
    (II)-Sarah Corrigal Metis bpt-1847 (b-1847)
    (II)-Fanny Corrigal Metis b-1848* (b-1845)
    (II)-Catherine Corrigal Metis bpt-1849 married 1880 (III)-Thomas Lowe Metis bpt 1860
    (II)-Thomas Corrigal Metis bpt-1849 (b-1849)
    (II)-Joseph Corrigal Metis bpt 1851(b-1851*)
    (II)-Henry Corrigal Metis bpt-1853 (b-1853*) (b-1853)
    (II)-Roderick Corrigal Metis bpt-1856 (b-1855*) (bpt-1856-1871)
    (II)-Flora Caooigal Metis bpt-1858 (b-1857*) (b-1858)
    (II)-Anna Bella Corrigal Metis b-1859, bpt-1860 daughter James and Mary (Richards) Corrigal who married 1849
    (II)-Joseph Corrigal Metis bpt-1860 (b-1859*) (1851-1879)
* 1870 census

Moose Lake, York District, marriage (I)-George Flett (1775-1850) employed HBC (1796-1823) retired Red River with wife (II)-Margaret (Peggy) Whitford, Metis b-about 1798 daughter (I)-James Peter Whitford (1766-1818) and Indian woman.

Francois Gaiun born 1813 North West, census 1831 Red River.

Louison Gagnon, born 1813 AL (America Land), is listed, in the 1849 census of Red River, with two males under sixteen and two females under fifteen.  A Louis Gagnon, born 1780 Canada, is listed 1840 census Red River, North West.  A Francois Gagnon born 1800 Canada is listed 1840 census Red River, North West.  A Francois Gagnon born 1810 Canada is listed 1838 Red River census.

(I)-Donald Gunn (1797-1878) joined HBC (1813-1822) York and Northern Department and this was a man who wanted to return home in (1814-1815).  
First married unnamed Metis woman
    (II)-William Gunn Metis (1822-1842) bapt 1822 York Factory
    (II)-James Gunn Metis bapt 1825 Red River married Mary
Second wife married 1826 Image Plains, (III)-Margaret Swain Metis bapt 1827 daughter (II)-James Swain Metis Jr. (1800-1887) and Margaret Racette
    (II)-John Gunn Metis bapt 1827
    (II)-Alexander Gunn Metis bapt 1829
    (II)-George Gunn Metis bapt 1834
    (II)-Jane Gunn Metis bapt 1836 d-1843
    (II)-Donald Gunn Metis (1840-1927) 
    (II)-Janet Gunn Metis bapt 1846 married 1874 Alexander Montgomery Muckle
    (II)-William Gunn Metis bapt 1848

Albany birth (II)-James Harper metis (1813-1887) son (I)-William Harper (1783-1820) and Mary Indian/Metis joined HBC (1821-1844) Albany, retired to Red River.  Married 1841 Martin Falls (III)-Charlotte (Charlet) Turner Metis b-1827 Rupert's Land daughter (II)-Joseph Turner Metis (1783-1865) and Indian/Metis woman
    (III)-John James Harper Metis bapt-1847 HBC (1870-1877) Athabasca
    (III)-William Harper Metis bapt-1849
    (III)-Emma Harper Metis bapt-1851
    (III)-Elizabeth Harper Metis bapt-1853 d-1854
    (III)-Roberta Harper Metis bapt-1855
    (III)-Joseph Richard Harper Metis bapt-1858
    (III)-Sarah Harper Metis bapt-1860, d-1875
    (III)-Alexander George Harper Metis bapt-1860/62, d-1882
    (III)-Thomas Harper Metis b-1862
    (III)-Edward Harper Metis b-1865/66 d-1873?
    (III)-Andrew Harper Metis bapt-1866 d-1866
    (III)-Hariet Jane Harper Metis bapt-1871
    (III)-David Harper Metis bapt-1874

James Hope a Cree Indian born, raised and educated Red River Area, joined HBC (1832-1849) working MacKenzie River, Inglis Bay, Slave River, descended Coppermine River to Wollaston Lake, Great Slave Lake, retired to Red River.

Pierre Karagdnyate (1794-1830) an Iroquois from Sault St. Louis, Quebec joined NWC (1813-1816) Mackinac and NWC/HBC (1816-1830) Columbia District.

Marie Laverdure, b-1813, Pembina Red River, married 1826 Francois St. Pierre, born between 1788-1801 in Red River des Metis, son Francois St. Pierre and Angelique.

Sault Ste Marie, birth (II)-Thomas Logan, Metis son (I)-Robert Logan employed NWC (1801-1814) Sault Ste Marie and Mary Saulteaux Indian woman d-1838

Dakota, birth Angelique Renville Metis daughter Joseph (Akipa) Renville (1779-1846) Metis and Marie (Tonkanne) Little Crow (daughter of the sister of Chief Little Crow);  married 1837/42 Hypolite Dupuis. 

John McBean d-1854 of the N.W.C. is in charge of the Pic on the north shores of Lake Superior.

(I)-Donald McDonald (MacDonald-Big Donald) born between 1781 to 1796 most likely 1792, d-1876, HBC (1813-1834) York to 1816, Edmonton house (1816-1834) Fort Carlton (1818-1820), retired to Red River 1834, married 1840 Red River Jean Boodry (Beaudry) Metis 
    (II)-William McDonald Metis bapt 1834 Red River
    (II)-John McDonald Metis bapt 1834 Red River
    (II)-Alexander McDonald Metis bapt 1834 Red River
    (II)-Isabella McDonald Metis bapt 1834 Red River
    (II)-Donald McDonald Metis bapt 1834 Red River
    (II)-Adam McDonald Metis bapt 1835 Red River
    (II)-Joseph (Joe) McDonald Metis bapt 1837 Red River (1837-1921) married Margaret or Marguerite Gaudry dit Beaudry Metis 
    (II)-Jean McDonald Metis bapt 1838 Red River
    (II)-Duncan McDonald Metis bapt 1840 Red River
    (II)-Margaret McDonald Metis bapt 1842 Red River
    (II)-Catherine McDonald Metis bapt 1844 Red River
    (II)-Jessie McDonald Metis bapt 1847 Red River
    (II)-Mary McDonald Metis bapt 1850 Red River

Donald Roy McGillis (1786-1817), employed by the American Fur Company, sailed for Astoria on the Columbia River but joined the North West Company after hearing about the British/American war.

(III)-Simon McGillivray Sr. Metis (1790-1832) son (II)-Simon McGillivray Sr. Metis the son of (I)-William McGollivray (1764-1825) and Susan Indian.  (III)-Simon joined NWC (1813-1821) & HBC (1821-1834) he was in Columbia Dostrict (1830-1834)  Simon McGillivray appears to have had one wife, Thérèse Roy and nine children. Their children were 
    (IV)-Cecilia McGillivray Metis 
    (IV)-Mary McGillivray Metis 
    (IV)-Montrose McGillivray Metis b-1822.
    (IV)-Napoleon Buonaparte McGillivray Metis (1825-1906), 
    (IV)-Ann Auldjo McGillivray Metis  
    (IV)-Frederick McGillivray Metis  
    (IV)-Edward McGillivray Metis 
    (IV)-Susan McGillivray Metis 
    (IV)-Theresa McGillivray Metis  
Another child by an untraced mother was 
    (IV)-John McGillivray Metis 

(II)-William McKay, b-1769 son man named McKay and (married about 1813) Barbara Sutherland.  In 1814 they were at Norway House

(I)-John McIntyre b-1793 joined (1813-1817) Red River, wife not identified and 8 children recorded but likely not Metis  

(I)-Alexander McTavish (1784-1832) joined NWC (1813-1821) Columbia, Fort William, Long Lake, Lake Superior; HBC (1821-1832) Lake Superior, Albany, married about 1820/21 Josette Monier Metis/Indian epouse 1834 (I)-Peter McKenzie (1806-1852).  Children went to live with their grandmother in 1831 and were sent to New South Wales;
    (II)-Duncan McTavish Metis
    (II)-Donald McTavish Metis 

Sophia Nowlin (Nolin), Ojibwa Metis, b-1813 Sault Ste Marie, daughter Michael Nowlin (Nolin) a Pawnee Metis, b-1795, and  Ojibwa woman, Sophia married William Cameron, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.  

Alexis Pelletrier, Metis b-1813 Red River des Metis son Charles Pelletier, Metis, b-1791/98, died 1853 and, Suzanne Bercier, b-1801; married 1833 Red River Louise Houle b-1824 daughter Antoine Houle Jr. (1782-1867) and Josephte Lauzon (1789-1873)..

James A. Read, Ottawa Metis, b-1813 Mackinac, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.

John Reid established a fur trading post on the lower Boise River, Idaho.

Edward Rose aka Cut Nose and Five Scalps, a Metis took up residence with the Omaha Indians and married the daughter of one of the chiefs and sired two Metis children.

Charlotte Rocheblave, a Metis, and her mother Nigans, an Ottawa Indian who could speak French, English, Algonquin, Ojibwa, Ottawa and Nipissing, settled in Two Mountains, acting as interpreter.  They originally lived in the Mackinac region.

(I)-William Robert Smith (1795/97-1869) joined HBC (1813-1824) Oxford House, Ille-a-la-Crosse, Lesser Slave Lake, Norwat House retired Red River.
1st. marriage 1825 Mary Ann Swain Metis (1805-1850) daughter (I)-James Swain Sr. b-1775 and native woman
    (II)-John Lee Smith Metis b-1873 married Elizabeth Moor
    (II)-Mary Anne Smith Metis (1825-1871) married Richard Salter
    (II)-Henry Smith Metis b-1826
    (II)-Sarah Hannah Smith Metis b-1827 married Robert Massey
    (II)-Elizabeth Smith Metis b-1829
    (II)-Caroline Smith Metis b-1831 married Henry Field
    (II)-William Robert Smith Metis b-1833 married 1860 Mary Bird Metis
    (II)-Eleanor Smith Metis b-1836 married Adam Isbister
    (II)-James Smith Metis b-1837 married 1st Madlene Bubue; 2nd married 1860 Mary Caroline Bubue
    (II)-Bridget Smith Metis b-1840 married (I)-Oluff Olsen b-1818 Norway
    (II)-Charlotte Smith Metis b-1842 married Norman Morrison
    (II)-Edgar Edward Harriott Smith Metis b-1844 married 1873 Anne3 Sebiston Benlingate (Billinggate)
2nd marriage Ann Omand (1833-1912) daughter William Oman Sr. Metis (1802-1867) of Fort Churchill
    (II)-Joseph Pemble Smith Metis (1853-1888) married 1874 Sara Jane Corrigain 
    (II)-Ann Smith Metis b-1855 married George Gray 
    (II)-Benjamin Pemble Smith Metis (1858-1870) 
    (II)-Frances Jane Smith Metis b-1859
    (II)-Thomas Vincent Pemble Smith Metis (1861-1914)  married Delina Munroe
    (II)-Victoria Alexander Smith Metis (1863-1863)
    (II)-Alexander Beddome Smith Metis b-1864
    (II)-George Albert Smith Metis (1867-1877)
    (II)-Rupert Pruden Smith Metis (1867-1932) married Harriet Lousia Brown Benjamin b-1869

Moose River, birth (II)-Ann Spence, Metis daughter (I)-Peter Spence (1777-1855) and (II)-Charlotte Thomas, Metis, (1788-1843)

Alexis St. Pierre, Ojibwa/Ottawa Metis, b-1813, arrived 1835 Moskego son Pierre St. Pierre Ottawa Metis b-1771 and Ottawa Woman of L'Arbre Croche, listed March 28, 1836 treaty

Martha Tanner, Ottawa Metis, b-1813 Mackinac, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.

Catherine Vincencount, Ojibwa Metis, b-1813, arrived 1834 St. Ignace, wife Henry Vincencount, Jr., listed March 28, 1836 treaty.

Dick Benge, a Cherokee Metis, is killed likely by Daniel Roberts, Talley and Ragsdale; settlers who are encroaching on Cherokee lands.

The Americans (U.S.) had driven the Indians from the ocean to the Great Lakes and they say they will go no farther.  The Americans consider Tecumseh as a most dangerous man, as he is uniting the Indians against the American expansion efforts.

The Kildonan emigration this year did not prosper. Typhus was brought aboard the Princes of Wales and five emigrants, as well as a young surgeon, died onboard ship. Another thirty were weakened by disease, some to die later. The Captain refused to land the settlers at York Factory and they were deposited at Fort Churchill without proper provisions for a winter on the Bay. (I)-Thomas Douglas' (1771-1820) miscalculations had a wide reaching effect, and his enthusiasm, energy, stubbornness and ingenuity became a liability to the Hudson Bay Company and the Red River community.

On the Canadian side of Sault Ste Marie dwelt some old Canadian boatmen with their Ojibwa wives and children.  Charles E'Malinger, a wealthy trader, also lived at the Sault.  On the American side of Sault Ste Marie lived a (I)- John Johnson  (1762?-1828 or 1742-1830?), an Irishman, and the old Indian trader named Jean Baptiste Nolin (1742-1826) and their Metis families. The American army pillaged Johnson's warehouses and set them on fire.  

Joseph Quinsy, in the United States Congress, called the invasion of Canada 'cruel, wanton, senseless and a wicked attack upon an unoffending people.'

The Americans attacked and burned part of York (Toronto), and launched a second invasion of the Niagara peninsula, forcing Canadian troops to withdraw to Burlington Heights at the head of the lake.  The Canadian defeats are at Put-In-Bay, Lake Erie, and at the battle of the Thames near Moravian town.  On October 5, 1813, Tecumseh lost his life near Moravian town.  At Stony Creek the Canadians dislodged the Americans, driving them from the peninsula.  (I)-Robert Dickson (1768-1823) and Joseph Renville, Metis, (1779-1846) are present at the siege of Fort Meigns.

It is interesting that an Indian band in Idaho was given the name 'bannock' that likely implies they adopted the French voyagers cuisine of bannock that was made out of flour but could also be made out of corn.  The French voyagers have been using bannock since 1701 made with lard and are now most likely using bison (buffalo) fat and berries for flavor.

March 3:  At Albany, (I)-Thomas Thomas (alias John George Thomas) requested that the British Hudson Bay Company set up a retirement haven for the numerous Metis families who wished to remain in the Country after retirement.  He was nearing retirement and was becoming fearful for the future of his half-breed  (Metis) family which he held in high regard.  Mrs. Margaret Thomas died December 31, 1813 of gout.

May 27:   Niagara on the Lake, is in the possession of the Americans until December 13, 1813.

June:  The partners of the Pacific Fur Company decided to sell their company and supplies to the North West Company.  The company was dissolved in July.

August 26:  Red River, birth (II)-Faith Fidler, Metis, died October 6, 1813, Brandon House daughter (I)-Peter Fidler (1769-1822) and Indian Swampy Cree woman (1771-1826).

September: On Lake Erie, the battle field is between war ships, and the British lose control of the Lake.  The British abandon Fort Detroit as being indefensible, but Tecumseh calls Henry Proctor and the British, shameful fat dogs.  Tecumseh knows that William Henry Harrison is waiting with an army of 5,000 men and Tecumseh looks forward to the fight.  The British, however, choose to retreat, fearing they will be cut off.   As they retreat, the Americans chase them down.  When Proctor finally decides to make a stand his men are tired, worn down and disheartened.   The Americans launch a cavalry attack, and the British break and run for safety, following Proctor who is the first to flee. The battle only lasts 10 minutes.   Tecumseh and his warriors, however, fight on for another hour.  Then Tecumseh is cut down.

September 6: Nelson House, birth (II)-Elizabeth Holmes, baptized October 4, 1820, Sandy Bar & Jack Head, Winnipeg District daughter (I)-John Pocock Holmes (1783-1858) employed HBC (1805-1821) married 1806, Ke-che-cow-e-coot, Metis alias Wee-misti-goos, Metis and Keese-cow-e-cumacoat, Metis or (II)-Betsy Cocking, Metis (1775-1835) daughter (I)-Matthew Cocking (1743-1799), epouse 1798 Fort York (I)-Thomas Stayer (1770-1827):

November:  Governor Claiborne of Louisiana circulated a wanted poster for (I)-Jean Lafitte (1780-1825) offering $500.00 for his capture with the intent of hanging.  Lafitte replaced the posters with his own offering $1,500.00 for the capture of the Governor.

December 15:  North West, birth Elisabeth Calder, Metis daughter James Calder and Nancy native; married July 21, 1829 Red River, James Sutherland, b-1800 N.W.



The Americans attacked the Canadian Fort George on Mackinac Island this year and were soundly defeated.  In 1815 tyhe Treaty of Ghent forced Canada to relinquish control of Fort George and trhey renamed it Fort Holmes.

The American Fur Company flourished for about 20 years, from 1814 - 1834 out of Mackinac.  Prior to this time he focused on the Columbia District at the mouth of the Columbia River but this was short lived being sold to the HBC. 
(I)-John Jacob Astor (1763-1848) of New York secured a controlling interest in the fur trade out of Mackinac, after the American Canadian war of 1812 and named the American Fur Company. The headquarters of the American Fur Company was at Mackinac Island, long before Chicago, Milwaukee, or St. Paul ever came into existence.  This is not true he only acquired control in 1818 after Congress outlawed foreign traders in its territory in 1817.

The major trading centers which are dominated by the Metis, Coureurs des bois and voyager settlers at this time are:  Detroit, Mackinac, Chicago, Sault Ste Marie, Milwaukie, Green Bay, Prairie Du Chien, St Paul (called Iminijaska meaning White Rock), St Louis, LaPointe, Red River and many more lesser locations.  The American British wars had driven many of the Metis into the west.

Henry Batchford, Ojibwa Metis, b-1814 Mackinac, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.  Absent temporally on a expedition.

John Beaudien arrived Michilimackinac this year.

North West birth Genevieve Berthelet, Metis daughter Toussaint Berthelet aka Savoyard dit Berthelet, Savoyard, b-1780, and Marguerite Saulteux

Peter Brass Sr. Metis, b-1794 Hudson Bay, employed HBC Swan River district (1814-1839) Fort Hibernia (1814-1818), Fort Pelly (1824-1839) Fort Edmonton (1821-1822) Chesterfield House, Bow River District ((1822-1823), married about 1820, Albany or Swan River, Susan Roy or Comtois, Metis.    

Lucy Cadotte, Ojibwa Metis, b-1814 La Point, Wisconsin arrived 1816 Sault Ste Marie wife Louis Cadotte b-1806 Sault Ste Marie, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.  Treaty rejected Whaiskey & Mrs Johnston says she from La Pointe.  

Asahel Cadotte, Ojibwa Metis b-1814 Sault Ste Marie, listed March 28, 1836, treaty.  Child of ? but admitted.

Churchill: marriage, churched 1835, (I)-John Charles, b-1784 married (II)-Jane Auld, Metis (1794/1800-1841) daughter (I)-William Auld (1770-1830) and Mary Indian or Metis, epouse 1823 (I)-William Tait b-1795, Orkney;  (I)-William Auld (1770-1830) abandoned his wife and their children when he returned to Scotland 1814.  John's 2nd marriage February 1, 1844, Red River, Margaret Macallum  

George Constin, Ottawa Metis, b-1814, St. Ignace, married to Ojibwa Metis b-1814 St. Ignace, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.

Catherine Contwa, Ojibwa Metis, b-1814 Sault Ste Marie daughter Geneviene Piquette, b-1786; wife John Baptiste Contwa, Ojibwa Metis b-1810 Sault Ste Marie, listed March 28, 1836 treaty. 

Two sons of Joseph Denoyers, Metis, and Charlotte Cardinal, Metis, married Margaret Barada, Metis and Margaret Dorion, Metis daughter Pierre Dorion, Sr. and Sioux Woman.  They worked the Osage River, Missouri and Mississippi Rivers. 

Saskatchewan District, or Moose Lake (Manitoba) birth, (II)-Margaret Dunnet, Metis , baptized June 5, 1823 Red River daughter (I)-William Dunnet aka Dunnett, Dennet (1780-1864) employed HBC (1796-1821) and (II)-Sophia Ballendine, Metis, b-1791: married Jean Baptiste (John) Spence.

(I)-Peter Erasmus (1792-1849) from Norway, alleged a veteran of the battle of Waterloo, joined HBC (1814-1825) mostly Red River where he settled.  Married Catherine Budd Ojibwa/Metis (1803-1890) claimed to be related to (I)-Mathew Cocking (1743-1799) and daughter Mary Budd Cocking Metis (1780-1828).  Nine children are recorded:
    (II)-Sophia Erasmus Metis
    (II)-Catherine Erasmus Metis
    (II)-Henry Erasmus Metis
    (II)-Sally Erasmus Metis
    (II)-Peter Erasmus Metis (1833-1931) married Charlotte Jackson Metis (1800?-1880)
    (II)-William Erasmus Metis
    (II)-Sally Erasmus Metis
    (II)-Mary  Erasmus Metis
    (II)-Mary Ann Erasmus Metis

Geneviene Ermatinger, Ojibwa Metis b-1814 Sault Ste Marie wife of Thomas Ermatinger, Ojibwa Metis, and Ojibwa Metis, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.

 Moose Lake, birth (II)-James Flett, Metis son (I)-George Flett (1775-1850) and (II)-Margaret (Peggy) Whitford, Metis b-about 1798 

(II)-John Garrioch (aka Garriock) Metis b-1814 Ruperts Land, likely son (I)-William Garrioch and (II)-Nancy Cook Metis b-1785; joined HBC (1837-1842) Norway House and Swan River.  It is noteworthy he could read and write, suggesting he was educated in Scotland.
    (III)-John Garrioch Metis HBC (1860-1866) from Ruperts Land and assigned Swan River
    (III)-John Garrioch Metis HBC (1865-1870) from Red River assigned Swan River, Lac La Pluie (maybe same as above or another John? )
    (III)-George Garrioch Metis HBC (1846-1875) from Swan River, assigned York, Churchill, Swan River and Athabasca (1869-1875) 

Henry G. Gravereat Jr., Ojibwa Metis, b-1814, Mackinac, son Henry Gravereat Sr. and  Charlotte Gravereat Ojibwa Metis, 1815. listed March 28, 1836 treaty.. 

Joachim Hubert Metis (1794/95-1873) born Sault St Louis son Ignace Hubert an Margaret Charlot Charles, Joined NWC 1814-1821) Michillimacinac, unknown assignment after 1814, HBC (1821-1843) Columbia District, retired Willamette, married Fort Colvile Josephte Kanhopitsa (dea Chaudieres) (1797-1848) epouse John Clark and Jean Boucher
    Jean Baptiste Clark b-1819 
    Lisette Hubert Metis b-1826
    Andre Hubert Metis b-1828
    Joseph Hubert Metis b-1831
   Isabelle Elizabeth Hubert Metis b-1833
    Andre Hubert Metis b-1828
    Marie Archange Hubert b-1835
    Rosalie Hubert Metis b-1839
    Adele Hubert Metis b-1841
    Joseph Hubert Metis b-1842
    Louis Hubert Metis b-1844

Sophia Johnson, Ojibwa Metis, b-1814 Sault Ste Marie daughter Louis Johnson and Ojibwa Metis Woman, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.

Pierre Kanatagonet Iroquois (1795-1828) from Sault St. Louis, Quebec joined NWC 1814 at Fort William, 1821 in Athabasca, 1825 in Columbia District to 1828.

Fort Dauphin, (II)-John Kipling Jr, Metis born Hudson Bay employed HBC (1810-1821) fell this year from a horse at Portage des Prairies.  His brother (II)-George Kipling, Metis born Hudson Bay was employed HBC (1819-1820), I assume their father was (I)-John Kipling Sr. and Indian or Metis woman.   

Antoine Le Doux (La Deux) Metis b-1814 Swan River, joined HBC (1834-1840) Swan River.

Manuel Lisa (1772-1826) married his 3rd wife a woman of the Omaha Indian tribe.

Sault Ste Marie, birth (II)-Mary Logan, Metis d-1851 daughter (I)-Robert Logan employed NWC (1801-1814) Sault Ste Marie and Mary Saulteaux Indian woman d-1838

Benjamin Louisignon, Ojibwa Metis b-1814 Mackinac son Francis Louisignon, Ojibwa Metis and Agatha Ottawa Metis, b-1782 listed March 28, 1836 treaty.

John (Jack) McDonald (1770-1828) of N.W.C. was in Red River des Metis trying to settle troubles between N.W.C. and H.B.C. settlers over the next two winters. 

(II)-William McGillivray Jr. Metis (1796-1832) son (I)-William McGillivray Sr. (1764-1825) and Susan Indian; married a Cree girl.  H joined NWC (1814-1821) & HBC (1821-1832), Two children are recorded:
    (III)-Sinon McGillivray Jr. Metis (1790-1840) he could be a son of (II)-Simon Gillivray Sr Metis the son of (I)-William McGillivray Sr. (1764-1825) and Susan Indian
    (III)-Joseph McGillivray Metis 

(II)-George McPherson Metis (1814-1891) born Hudson Bay son (I)-Andrew McPherson (1783-1847), married 1855 Margaret, joined HBC (1831-1871 Temiscamingue, Albany, Lac La Pluie.

(I)-Robert McVicar (1794-1864) employed HBC (1812-1830) assigned to York Factory (1812-1814); Cumberland House (Winnipeg) (1814-1815)

Ann Marie Schoolcraft, Ojibwa Metis, b-1814 Sault Ste Marie daughter of brother of George Johnston and Susan Johnston and wife of James L. Schoolcraft, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.

Josette Poissen, Ojibwa Metis b-1814, arrived 1822 Sault Ste Marie, wife Louis Poisson of Red River and Ojibwa Woman, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.  Rejected as not of Michigan. 

The Ojibwa traders, according to Thomas Vincent of the Osnaburgh district, report that the Cranes and Suckers hunt to the North of Osnaburgh House, between Trout Lake where there is a settlement from Severn.  The Loons hunt to the east toward Lake St. Anns, the Moose and Sturgeons to the south west, and the Kingfishers and Pelicans toward Lake Winnipeg and north west of Osnaburgh.

Birth, Old North West Region (II)-Mary (Marie) Dickson Metis (1808-1884) daughter (I)-Robert Dickson (Mascotapah (Red Hair Man)) (1768-1823) and Helen Totowin;  She married Henry Ange.

Prairie du Chien, birth Marie Louise Brisbois, Metis daughter Michel Brisbois (1759-1837) and Domitelle Gauthier de Verville born 1781 Prairie du Chein.

Basil Finley, Metis, born 1814 Spokane, Washington son Jacques Raphael (Jacko) Finlay, Metis (1768-1828) and Indian woman or could be the child of James Finlay, Metis, b-1794 or Thornburn Finlay, Metis, b-1795 or Bonhomme Finlay, Metis, (1795-1821) or Augustin (Yoostah) Finlay (1800-1883).

Michel Labatte born Sault Ste Marie (American side) son Louis George Labatte and Louisa Cadotte a Metis Chippewa. 

(III)-Selkirk McKay b-1814/15 Norway House son (II)-William McKay, b-1769 son man named McKay and Barbara Sutherland.

John Schermenhorn, Ottawa Metis, b-1814 Grand River, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.

Emily B. Smith, Ottawa Metis, b-1814, arrived 1834 Grand River, sister to Rix Robinson's wife, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.

Joseph Tramblee, Ojibwa Metis, b-1814 Mackinac, brother Louis Montrielle, Ojibwa Metis,  b-1811 St. Ignace, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.

The Bannock Indians destroyed John Reid's Trading Post (established 1813) on the lower Boise River, Idaho.

The Hudson Bay Company did not claim exclusive rights until this year and tried to retro fit their claim to 1670.  The Hudson Bay Company did not enter the Saskatchewan until the 1780's or the Assiniboine until 1805.  The Hudson Bay Company never had any rights to the Red River or the Saskatchewan Rivers.  Selkirk was the first to suggest this preposterous idea of exclusive rights to these territories.

A colony of freemen (Metis?) is noted near Fort William.

Three Gagnon's are born Red River des Metis, North West about 1814-1815.  Josehn Gagnon (1) born 1815 is living with his father and assumed just married in 1835 census.  Joseph Gagnon (2) is listed 1835 census Red River, North West, married no children (probably a senior and father of Josehn (1)).  Joseph Gagnon (3) born 1815 is living Red River 1835 census.  Joseph Gagnon (4) born 1814 listed Red River 1835 census married no children.  The 1849 census of Red River suggests a Joseph Gagnon born 1815 is born AL (America Land) with one male under 16 and one female under fifteen.

Joseph Gagnon born 1791 Canada is listed 1831 census Red River, North West with two males one over 16 years and three females one being over fifteen years and one unmarried woman also living with family.  In 1838 census a Joseph Gagnon born 1778 Canada with one female under age fifteen is listed.

Joseph Howse listed some of the men at Fort IIe-A-La-Crosse during this season as follows: 
Jean Baptiste Charbonneau, Thomas Dumont, Charles Flett, John Flett, William Flett,  James Gardiner, William Linklater, Jean Baptiste Paul and Charles Gauthier who married 1826 Betsy England adopted daughter James Englund.

Joseph Pin (1794/95-1841) joined NWC (1813-1814) Fort des Prairies on the Saskatchewan River, NWC 1814 at Michillimacinac, assigned NorthWest 1815 likely Saskatchewan River, then he crossed the Rockies (1817-1818) with Joseph Felix Larocque, Metis b-1802, (1819-1821) & HBC (1821-1841) Columbia District, settler Willamette..  Joseph Pin had one wife and five recorded children. On April 19, 1839, he formalized his marriage to Marguerite Kwe’he’ssest, Pend d’Oreille. Their children were 
    Joseph II Pin Metis b-1827
    Nancy Pin Metis b-1830
    Jean Baptiste (cPin Metis b-1833
    François Pin Metis b-1836
    Marguerite Pin Metis (1839-1925). 
When widow Marguerite died in 1851, daughter Marguerite (1839-1925) was made a ward of Dr. John McLoughlin in Oregon City.

 John Wills married Josephte Grant sister of Cuthbert Grant (1793-1854). 

John Wills of Fort Souris suspected that (II)-Miles Macdonell (1767-1828), an employee of the H.B.C. who suffered from severe emotional instability, might attempt to seize his furs, so he dispatched ninety-six bags of furs with orders to hide them near White Horse Plains below Fort Douglas.  (II)-Miles Macdonell (1767-1828) ordered Jean Baptiste Lagimoniere (Lagimodiere) (1778-1855), a French Freeman and a Hudson Bay Company man, to find and confiscate the furs.  Jean would later be captured, imprisoned and suffer the disgrace of being a traitor.  The H.B.C., however, would give him a land grant across the river from Fort Garry for his service.  He then sent John Spencer with a group of armed H.B.C. men to attack Fort Souris. which was defended by (I)-John Pritchard (1777-1855).  It's noteworthy that Pritchard was still in the employ of HBC but sided with the Metis and quit the comapny as a result to become Councillor of the Assiniboia.  Spencer used their axes to cut through the gates and stole 479 bags of pemmican, 93 kegs of grease, 465 pounds of meat, which started the Pemmican War.

John Wills of Fort Souris refused to post the H.B.C. proclamation as ordered, and questioned the validity of the H.B.C. charter and Miles authority to rule on the disposition of pemmican.  In fact, the H.B.C. did not have authority over the Metis and Indian Peoples or over their trading practices. 

(I)-John Work alias Wark an Irishman (1792-1861) joined HBC (1814-1822) York District then (1823-1861) Columbia District.  
1st married a native girl Red River bapt 1826
    (II)-Elizabeth Work Metis
    (II)-Anne Work Metis
    Betsey Work Metis married 1836 Henry Budd Metis (1812-1875) another possible daughter
2nd marriage 1849 Josette Legace Metis 1812-96), the daughter of Pierre Legace and Emma, the daughter of a Nez Perce chief.  They formalized their marriage on November 6, 1849. Together they had twelve children: 
    (II)-Jane Work Metis (1827-1880), born Fort Colvile married 1850 W. Tolmie
    (II)-Sarah Work Metis (1829-1906), born Fort Colvile married 1849 (I)-Roderick Finlayson (1818-1892)
    (II)-Letitia Work Metis (1831-1910), born Idaho married 1857 (I)-Edward Huggins (1832-1907)
    (II)-Margaret Work Metis (1836-1907), born Fort Vancouver married 1861 E.H. Jackson
    (II)-Mary Work Metis (1837-1919), born Fort Simpson married 1860 J.A. Grahame
    (II)-John Work Metis (1839-1886), born Fort Simpson
    (II)-Catherine Work Metis (1842-1869), born Foert Simpson married 1861 C. Wentworth Wallace
    (II)-Josette Work Metis b-1843, Fort Victoria married 1878 E. Prior 
    (II)-Henry Work Metis (1844-56), born Fort Simpson
    (II)-David Work Metis (1846-78), born Fort Simpson
    (II)-Cecilia JosephineWork Metis b-1849 born Fort Simpson married 1870 Charles Jones
    (II)-Suzette Work Metis (1854-1897) ?.

The Selkirk settlers had no shelter or provisions at York Factory and the same was true at Red River des Metis.  In 1812-13 many starved or died of scurvy and the Metis felt sorry for them and sent provisions.  The solution by Selkirk and the Hudson Bay Company is the Pemmican Proclamation stealing all food supplies in the area, including the North West Company supplies of pemmican and forbidding any to be shipped out.   This was in effect a proclamation of War and led to the killings at Seven Oaks.  It was fairly obvious that Selkirk was mentally unstable.

The English were raised in a tradition of serfdom, where the Lord of the Land held the people as no better than slaves indentured to the Kings Land.  The Metis were freemen, raised in a tradition of free trade, freedom of movement and a belief that only God owned the land and the fruits thereof. 

During the American burning of Sault Ste Marie, the Metis with 335 men in 47 canoes slipped past the Americans with a large shipment of furs for Montreal. 

(I)-Peter Fidler (1769-1822), in his account of Canadian Free Traders of Red River, reported on October 31 that Sutherland and three Hudson Bay men carried orders to the Canadians at Brandon House and Charlton House to quit the place.  It would appear that Peter Fidler wrote his diary of 1814-1815 after the fact and confused or doctored the sequence of events as well as the facts.

(I)-Peter Fidler's journal of 1814-15 called an account of Canadian Free Traders at Red River. It listed 42 families at the Forks at Pembina, 10 families at Swan River, 7 Families at Riviere La Appelle and 7 other families; totaling 64 families in the vicinity.  This is interesting given that in 1805, Alexander Henry (1764-1814) and (I)-David Thompson (1770-1857) recorded 240 families in the Red River region.  It would appear that Peter Fidler is distorting reality or is selectively counting only the Hudson Bay Company inhabitants of the region.  Maybe the 64 families only represent those who conduct business with the Hudson Bay Company or its colony.  Cadotte with his two female children are among the listing.   By 1814 (I)-Peter Fidler had seven children.

Fort Michilimackinac, defended by 350 Natives, 100 Newfoundland Infantry and 50 Canadian militiamen, in July, repelled an attack by the Americans.  At this time the Nancy is the only Canadian ship in these waters, having been built at Fort Detroit in 1774 for the North West Company.  The Americans sank the Nancy in the Nottawasaga River at the bottom of the Georgian Bay, and the Canadians retaliated by capturing two American ships:  Tigress; renaming her H.M.S. Surprise, and the Scorpion; renaming her H.M.S. Confidence, thereby doubling the Canadian fleet in this area. 

It is reported that Clark has taken Prairie Du Chien and built a fort.  Mackillimakinac sent William McKay with Porlier, Rolette, Honore, Grigon, Brisbois, Joseph Renville (Metis, 1779-1795), Nolin, Lacroix and Biron, to recover Prairie De Chien on the Mississippi.  At Prairie du Chien (Iowa) they forced the American gunboat Governor Clark to withdraw.  The American garrison surrendered the next day. Prairie Du Chien, a trading post, had been a support for a thriving fur business being built up by the likes of (I)-Robert Dickson (1768-1823), James Aird and John Lawe.

A Metis flag is presented by Alexander MacDonnell of the North West Company.  Its a white, horizontal figure eight on a blue field. It represents the joining of two cultures and, as an infinity symbol, represents the immortality of the Metis Nation. Some would suggest there was two flags; one for the French Metis and another for the British Metis, but I find no evidence to support this contention.
Prior to this time and from the very beginning, the Metis symbol was their distinct clothing. It was more of a personal thing, and like their Indian tradition, varied from person to person.

Gabriel Franchere visited Jean Baptiste Nolin (1742-1826) and noted that Jean Baptiste Nolin had three boys and four girls; one of whom was passably pretty. One son was called Augustin, another Francois and the third, Louis. Gabriel considered Nolin an important trader, and in his home, one sees large furniture with marks of prosperity. Nolin is reported to have acquired a key tract of land on the south side and on the waterfront at Sault Ste Marie, from four Ojibwa Chiefs. It is noteworthy that his wife is Ojibwa, which likely helped in the acquisition of land. He also owned property and a house on the north side of the Sault which he rented out to (III)-Charles Oakes Ermatinger Metis (1776-1853).  (III)-Charles Oakes Ermatinger married Charlotte Kattawabide (1785-1880), an Ojibwa who was 15 years of age, and they were married for 30 years.

A fur trader in the Athabasca District reports that the beaver is dwindling down to nothing. This reduction of beaver is attributed to the reckless hunting methods of the Iroquois. The local Chipewyan are so dissatisfied that they plotted to expel all fur traders from the area.

The Russian fur trades from Alaska sent a ship to establish a colony in Hawaii, but it was ship wrecked this year.

John Haldane d-1857 and James Hughes shared responsibility for the Saskatchewan River department for the N.W.C. 

January 8:   Miles MacDonnell, (1769-1828) of the Hudson Bay Company, under authority of the British/Scots, prohibited the export of provisions from Pembina (Red River).  No persons whatsoever shall take any provisions, either flesh, fish or vegetables procured or raised within the said Territory, without a license from the Governor, and whosoever shall be detected in attempting to convey shall be taken into custody and prosecuted as the law in such case directs.  As an example, he seized the pemmican at the Canadian North West Company Post of La Souris.  It is noteworthy that he also seized some pemmican stored at a nearby Hudson Bay Post. Most of the suppliers of pemmican at Red River are free trader Metis. Miles also served notice to quit on the other Canadian North West Company Forts, including the Canadians at River Winnipeg, Turtle River, Brandon House, Carlton House, Fort Dauphlin Portage des Prairies and River Qu Appella. It is amazing that the 'Pemmican War' did not breakout on this very day, based on British arrogance. The Metis Nation had an instinctive hostility towards Englishmen, Orkney men and Scots of the British Hudson Bay Company (or the North West Company for that matter).  They formed the first Canadian Mounted Cavalry Division of the Red River Metis Nation, who watched, with increasing resentment, the actions of Miles MacDonnell (1769-1828).  Miles MacDonnell (1769-1828) prohibited the running of bison (buffalo) by horsemen near the settlement because it drove the herds out of reach of the colonists. It would appear that Miles MacDonnell (1769-1828) had been commissioned to instigate a war so as to draw British armed forces into the region to secure the Hudsons Bay Company's fragile claim to the region.  The Metis of Red River are angered by the British pemmican proclamation.  Miles MacDonell (1769-1828) ordered the arrest of the Metis for running the bison (buffalo) with horses, and those who defied his authority included Bostonnais Pangman and Cuthbert Grant.  It is noteworthy that the running of bison (buffalo) with horses is a tradition that predates the arrival of the H.B.C. in this region of Metis Country. 

January 10:   Marie Aioe Languivoise (1786-1850) witnessed the attack and death of the John Reed wintering party, which included: Reed, Dorion, Jacob Regner, John Hubbough, Gilles Leclerc, Francois Landry, Jean Baptiste Turcotte, Andre Lachapelle and Pierre De Launay.

January 11:  Florissant, Missouri, marriage Charles Latour to (III)-Pelagie Marechal, Metis, daughter (II)-Francois Marechal, Metis, born March 31, 1751 Cahokia, (Illinois) and Marie Therese Riviere; 1st. married October 8, 1795 St. Louis, Missouri to Jean Baptiste Billot. 

February:  The Americans captured St. Joseph's, Lake Huron, located not far from Sault Ste Marie.  Mr. Bailly and five other associates with the Mackinaw Company are taken prisoners.

April 26:  Cumberland House, birth (II)-William Kennedy, Metis, baptized August 12, 1821, Norway House died January 25, 1890,  son (I)-Alexander Kennedy (1781-1832) employed HBC (1798-1829) and, Aggathas (Agatha, Aggatha) aka Mary Isbister and Bear (1782-1863), Cree Metis: married 1859 Eleanor Elizabeth Crippsd-1890, two children recorded Willie and Mary Louise.

April 24:   Detroit, marriage Antoine DaGneau de Quindre sieur de Pontchartrain baptised August 24, 1751 Detroit, died April 5, 1814 Detroit son sieur (Louis Cesaire) Dequindre and Marianne De Bellestre; married August 23, 1779 Montreal Catherine Desrivieries Lamorandiere Trotter born 1757 died May 12, 1817 Detroit daughter Jean Noel Trotter dit Desrivieries and Marie Catherine Gamelin. 

In the spring:   Pierre Michel, a Metis, married the 16 year old niece of a flat head chief.  Ross Cox claimed Pierre was the only Metis to be honored this way by this tribe.  Ross Cox explained how the traditional country marriage had degenerated.  When a trader wishes to separate from his Indian wife, he generally allows her an annuity or gets her comfortably married to one of the voyagers, who for a handsome sum, is happy to become husband and daddy for La Dame d'un Bourgeois.  This practice was introduced by the Scots, who streamed into the North West trade.

April 24:   Cumberland House, birth (II)-William Kennedy, Metis died January 25, 1890 Winnipeg son of Chief Factor Cumberland House (I)-Alexander Kennedy of Orkney  and Agatha (Aggathas) Indian Mother, he was educated in Orkney Island 1825-1932 with older brother George.  Alexander had five Metis children.

May:   Antoine Desjarlais, Metis, b-1794, North West Territories, son Joseph Desjarlais, b-1754 and Okemakwe; 1st married about 1821 Marie Alexis Metis b-1800, 2nd marriage Catherine Allary, a former N.W.C. man, is at Lac La Biche with his 4 children, gathering eggs, when Gabriel Franchere, (I)-John George McTavish (1778-1847), David Stewart, John Clark, Benjamin Oillet (pillet), William Wallace and Donald Roy McGillis (1786-1817) passed their way, coming from Astoria on the Columbia River in April, on their way to Winnipeg River and Fort Bas de La Riviere; which they reached by June 30. 

June 21:   A party of eighty three Scottish squatters, mostly farmers and sheep herdsmen, arrived near the Metis Red River settlement.  These displaced people from the parish of Kildonan are the casualties of the great Sutherland Clearance of 1811 and 1812.

July 14:  January 3: (I)-James Keith (1782-1851) struck out for east of the Rockies from Columbia District along with Alexander Stewart and fifteen crewman. On the 8th, they were attacked and robbed above Celilo Falls on the Columbia River and Stewart was seriously wounded with two arrows but Keith escaped injury. In spite of Keith’s insistence that they wait for elderly hunter Jean Baptiste Sakanakee, the Nipissing native was left to fend for himself while they headed back downriver. Eventually, by July 1814, he reached Fort William and became partner with four other clerks, two of whom were Angus Bethune and John McLoughlin.

July 19:   Robert McDouall marched upon and captured the Metis settlement of Prairie du Chein on the Mississippi.  The town was empty, as the settlers had vacated the area.

August 1:   Alexander MacDonnell and (I)- Duncan Cameron a Scot (1764-1848) of the Canadian North West Company informed John MacDonald that nothing but the complete down fall of the British Hudson Bay Company and the H.B.C. Red River Colony will satisfy, by fair or foul means, and something serious will undoubtedly take place on the Red River of the north.  This is clearly a formal declaration of war.  (I)-Thomas Thomas, alias John George Thomas, succeeded William Auld as British Governor of the Northern defense District.  Thomas retires in 1815 and winters at Jack River near Norway House.  Thomas's successor is Robert Simple.  Thomas then retires to the H.B.C colony at Red River, where he died on November 24, 1828.

August:  A Canadian expedition took Washington.  President Madison deserted the Presidents House.  The Canadian army burned the Capital and the Presidents house.  The Americans rebuilt the Presidents house, the walls whitewashed to hide the fire marks, and they called it the White House.  The Americans halted the Canadian advance at Baltimore.  The Americans were on the defensive, as the English blockade extended the full length of the east coast.  The treaty of Ghent would conclude the conflict.  As a result, future American immigrants could not obtain land in Canada until they lived in the province for seven years.  The French population had reached three hundred and thirty five thousand and non French, one hundred and sixty five thousand.

July 20:  York (Toronto):  Judge William D. Powell sentenced eight men to die on the scaffold's for high treason.  The procedure after hanging is beheading and their heads exhibited.
The American Congress enacted a law prohibiting foreigners who had not become citizens from engaging in Indian Trade .  The French controlled the trade, therefore the Government allowed interpreters and voyagers to be employed by American traders.

September 22:   St. Louis, Missouri, marriage Louis Rene Trudeau married at the Old Cathedral Archange Dumouchel daughter Janot and Marguerite Dumouchel.  Source Harry A. Tatro.

September 23:   (I)-Peter Fidler (1769-1822) writes that the settlers harvested their Indian corn, but that most is lost as the horses and cows had broke the fences and ate the crop.

November 7:  As the United States was retreating from their attack on Canada, Andrew Jackson (1767-1845) invaded and captured Pensacola, Florida defeating the Spanish.  

November 24:  Brandon House, birth, (II)-Clement Fidler, Metis, died January 16, 1870, son (I)-Peter Fidler (1769-1822) and Mary a Swampy Cree (1771-1826); married Charlotte Slater.

December 13:  Andrew Jackson (1767-1845) defeated the British and declared martial law in New Orleans, Louisiana.  Mr. Jackson was a fiercely jealous man, who loved to brawl, and threatened anyone who opposed him.

December 14:  The Treaty of Ghent, Belgium ended the American War of 1812. 


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