No less than 14 members of the McTavish and McGillivary Scot clans
worked in the North West Company fur trade.
The North West Company attempts to restrict free trade, but loses in court.
The judgment says the Company has no legal right to restrict free trade.

Red River Cart

The Metis invent the Red River cart.



METIS HISTORY Return to METIS 1800-1849 index



The North West Company tries to buy out the Hudson Bay Company.
It is reported that the perverted practice of trading young women's favors
had reached the Prairies.


Margaret Assiniboine, Metis, b-1800 Red Lake, Minnesota Territory, married Pierre Azure Sr., son Joseph Azure Sr., b-1769, Sorel, Quebec, died January 28, 1832 Red River and Lizette Manaecha, Native, b-1775.

(II)-Jane Auld, Metis daughter (I)-William Auld (1770-1830) and Mary Indian or Metis, epouse (I)-William Tait b-1795, Orkney;  (I)-William Auld (1770-1830) abandoned his wife and their children when he returned to Scotland 1814.  Jane married 1814 Churchill, (I)-John Charles b-1784

Michael Basinet born 1800 likely La Pointe, Wisconsin married September 22, 1850 La Pointe, Wisconsin Margaret Ochkigikwe born 1820 likely La Pointe, Wisconsin.

(I)-Joseph Beioley aka Bewley (1785-1859) from London, employed HBC (1800-1841) NWT,Albany, Moose and Rupert Rivers,  married about 1814 Moose Factory, (II)-Isabella McKay, Metis daughter (I)-John McKay (1753-1810) of Albany River and Mary Favell, Metis, d-1810; they had 
    (II)-Richard William Flecher Beioley, Metis the only child considered "natural, and lawful".  He took Richard back to London in 1819.  
His four other children were considered "unnatural and illegal" likely born of Indian women. 
    (II)-Mary Fletcher Metis b-1817 Moose Factory. bapt 1817
    (II)-Mary Fletcher Metis b-1819 Moose Factory, bapt 1820
    (II)-Fletcher Robert Fletcher Metis b-1822, bapt 1822 
    (II)-Joseph Alexander Fletcher Metis d-1864 Red River married Anne Moore
        (III)-Ann Morore Fletcher Metis b-1842

Alexis Bellgard, Metis b-1800 Canada married Marguerite Dufort, Metis b-1797 Red River.  

Francis Benechi born 1800 likely La Porte, Wisconsin married January 6, 1850 La Pointe, Wisconsin Theresia Jawanassinokwe born 1804 likely Fon du Lac, Wisconsin.

(I)-Joseph Beioley (1785-1859) joined HBC (1800-1843) married (III)-Isabella McKay Metis daughter (II)-Alexander McKay Metis (1805-1842) (son (I)-John McKay (1753-1810) and (II)-Mary Favell, Metis b-1775);  This suggest Isabella is daughter (I)-John; recorded children are:
    (II)-Richard William Flecher Metis
    (II)-Mary Fletcher Metis born February 27, 1817 Moose Factory
    (II)-Mary Fletcher Metis born December 31, 1819 Moose Factory
    (II)-Robert Fletcher Metis born January 22, 1822 Moose Factory
    (II)-Joseph Alexander Fletcher Metis d-1864 Red River, wife Ann Moore, child Anne Maria born January 5, 1842

North West birth Pierre Berthelet, Metis son Toussaint Berthelet aka Savoyard dit Berthelet, Savoyard, b-1780, and Marguerite Saulteux

Antoine Bonneau, Metis, b-1803, died January 25, 1844 Red River son Jean Baptiste Bonneau, b-1752, died 1842 Red River and Louise Native, b-1760; married Angelique Delorme, b-1800 Pembina (North Dakota) daughter Francois Delorme, b-1767 Canada and Charlotte aka Madeleine La Santense, b-1775.

Josephte LaSavagesse Bottineau, Metis, born 1800 daughter, Charles Joseph Bottineau (1776-1824) and Techomegood; married 1815, Pembina, Baptiste Pierre Fosseneneuve.

Elise Boucher born 1800 Red River des Metis Settlement daughter Noir Boucher.

(II)-John Bunn Dr. Metis (1800/02-1861) born Albany son (I)-Thomas Bunn (1765-1853) and (II)-Sarah McNab Metis d-1806, joined HBC (1819-1824) retired Red River, married (II)-Catherine Thomas Metis (1810-1834) daughter (I)-Thomas Thomas (1765/66-1828) and Sarah Indian/Metis (1776/79-1846)
    (III)-Thomas Bunn Metis bapt-1830
    (III)-John Bunn Metis bapt-1832, d-1878) HBC (1867-1878) 
    (III)-William Thomas Bunn bapt-1833, d-1847

Madeleine Louise Breland, b-1800 N.W.T. daughter Pierre Breland, (1760-1829) a free trader and Louise Belly Indian; married 1820, Charles Houle, Metis, b-1794 N.W.T. son of a man named Houle and Elise a Native.

Michael Brissette born 1800 died March 22, 1845 LaPointe, Wisconsin.

Jean Baptiste b-1800 Minnesota, living 1850 census Sault Ste. Marie, Wisconsin, listed as a voyager.

Augustus Cadotte born 1800 likely La Pointe, Wisconsin married July 22, 1838, La Pointe, Wisconsin Maria Anna Mijakamigijigokwe born 1818 likely La Pointe, Wisconsin.

George D Cameron born 1800 likely Lac du Flambeau (Lake of Flames), Wisconsin married July 24, 1836 La Pointe, Wisconsin Maria Wechkin born 1817 likely La Pointe, Wisconsin.

(I)-John Archibald Campbell (1775-1808) is a trader for the Machinac Company from 1800 to 1806, when he became independent.

Etienne Charbonneau joined NWC (1800-1821) Red River Brigade, Lake Winnipeg, Fort Wedderburn, Athabasca (1811-1813) then Fort William ?(1820-1821)

Eastman, birth (II)-Richard Chilton. Metis b-1800 son (I)-Robert Chilton Sr. and Indian Woman;  

(II)-John Clarke, (1781-1852) joined the North West Company and served successively on the MacKenzie River and on the Peace river. 

Jean Baptiate Cloutier, Metis b-1800 Pembina, a lumberman, married Josephte Racette b-1801 Red River. 

Antoine Cornoyer born 1800 likely Lake Superior married July 24, 1836 La Pointe, Wisconsin Susan Dullieme born 1806 likely La Pointe, Wisconsin.

Nicolas des Coteaux born 1800 likely Lake Superior died June 18, 1856 LaPointe, Wisconsin.

(II)-Griffiths (Griffith) Daniel, Metis, (183/90-1869) employed HBC (1800-1830) son (I)-Jenkins Daniel (1740-1824/25) employed HBC (1765-1825) and Indian Woman

Red River, birth of Antoine Dechamp Metis son Francois Deschamps and a Cree Girl.  He signed HBC 1826 at Red River and worked (1831-1850) Columbia District.  Antoine Dechamp had two wives and three recorded children. He had a son
    David Deschamp Metis on June 29, 1839 by his first wife, Marie Anne, a Nez Perces. 
On January 27, 1844, he married a minor, Marie Tikillis/Aloise of the Cowlitz/Louise Chehalis, who bore him a son 
    David Deschamp on August 1, 1845 and a daughter
    Marie Deschamp Metis in March, 1849.

Red River, birth about this time of Pierre Dechamp Metis son Francois Deschamps and a Cree Girl.

Josette Dauphiny, Ojibwa Metis, b-1800, arrived 1822 Mackinac, wife Francois Dauphiny, and sister Angelique Belonger b-1816, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.  Rejected as from Leech Lake Indians.

Francois Demonay b-1800, Pembina, a hunter,  married Marguerite Metis, b-1800 Red River 

Francis Desmarais Metis Sr married Eliget (Elizet) Indian
    Marie Anne Desmarais Metis b-1804 N.W.T. married John Anderson Metis b-1804 NWT
    Michel Desmarais Metis b-1806 Red River
    Francois Desmarais Jr Metis b-1807 N.W.T.
    Charles Desmarais Metis b-1808 Red River

Jean Baptiste Desmarais Metis joined NWC (1800-1821) Red River, Fort des Prairies (1811-1814), Fort William (1817-1818), Montreal (1818-1819)  recorded Red River 1804 nut likely a part of the Red River brigade (1800-1801) with wife and 2 children, married 1803 Josephate Sauteuse (Chippewa).

Nemaha Territory, Missouri, birth Margaret Dorion Metis born about 1800 daughter Pierre Dorion (1740-1810) and Yankton woman (Holy Rainbow); married about 1829, St. Charles, Missouri a Louis Desnoyers.  See 1780.

Marie DuPuis (widow) born 1800 Red River des Metis Settlement living St. Norbert, Red River 1870.

Sault Ste Marie, birth (IV)-Anne Ermatinger, Metis (1800-1817?) daughter (III)-Charles Oakes Ermatinger (1776-1853) and Charlotte Kalawabide (Kattawabide/Cattoonalute/Manacowe) who died 1880. 

(II)-George Fidler Metis b-1800 Cumberland House son (I)-Peter Fidler (1769-1822) and Mary Metis or Indian (1771-1826), joined HBC (1822-1826) Fort Dauphin, Swan River

Henry Fisher Jr., Metis (1800-1855) Red River, son Henry Munro Fisher, d-1827 and Madeleine Gauthier; married Marguerite La Framboise, Metis, b-1805, NWT, daughter Joseph La Framboise, Metis Sr., born July 29, 1776 Mackinac Island, Michigan and Josephte Assiniboibe, b-1780. 
         One child is recorded 
            La Louise Fisher Metis b-1850 Fort Ellice, married June 17, 1867, died January 11, 1932 to (III)-Jean Baptiste Spense Jr. (1835-1897) 

Marie Fistin born 1800 Genitoire, NWT daughter Fistin.

(I)-Thomas Firth, b-1794 Scotland, died Mat 8, 1875, married Elizabeth Boucher, Metis, b-1800, Fort Alexander, N.W.T. daughter Francois Boucher and Josephte Maskegon.

Thomas Forth born 1800 Red River Settlement listed a son of the Scot Thomas Forth.

Baptiste Pierre Fosseneuve married 1815 Pembina, North Dakota to Josephte Lasavagese Bottineau, Metis, b-1800, Grand Forks, daughter Charles Joseph Bottineau, (1776-1824) and Techomegood. 

Red River birth (V)-Louise Gariepy, Metis daughter (IV)-Louis Gariepy born July 3, 1777 Lachenaye, Quebec, and Josephte Saulteaux b-1755: married Pierre Bonneau Metis b-1803..  

Caroline Gauthier born 1800 likely Lake Superior died September 26, 1850 La Pointe, Wisconsin.

Pierre George, Metis b-1800 Red River des Metis, a hunter, 2nd marriage about 1841 Red River Marguerite Saulteaux b-1820 Red River 

New Brunswick House, (Ontario), birth (II)-George Gladman, Jr. Metis (1800-1863) son (I)-George Gladman Sr. (1765-1821) and Mary More (Moar) an Indian woman from Moose Factory (1774-1858); (1804-1814) to UK for education, joined HBC (1814-1858) Moose, Eastman, English Rivers, York District.  married (II)-Harriet Metis b-1798 epouse 1810 (I)-David Ramsey Stewart b-1786 who abandoned his family.  Daughter (I)-Thomas Vincent (1776-1832) and Jane Renton (1782-1858)
    (III)-Thomas Gladman Metis (1828-1908) married Sarah Jarrett; 
    (III0-Caroline Gladman (1830-1845); 
    (III)-Joseph Gladman Metis (1832-1890) married Elizabeth Anne Rowe
    (III)-Henry Gladman Metis (1834-1912) married Melissa Rientord
    (III)-Charles George Gladman Metis (1837-1858) 
    (III)-John Vincent Gladman Metis (1840-1910) married Matilda Rowe   

Francois Gourneau, alias Geurnou, Guernoe (Garneau) (1800-1870), is born this year, Red Lake Band, Minnesota treaty 1854 script application No. 343 dated June 7, 1869, and rejected.

Jean Baptiste Hamelin (Hamel/Amelin) was with the Alexander Henry the younger, Metis (1764-1814), brigade on the Upper Red River of the North until 1801.??  Joseph Hamelin (Hamel/Amelin) is on the Upper Red River working for the North West Company.  

Daniel William Harmon (1778-1845) informs us that the NWC had a post called Rainy Lake Fort.  He also says NWC and HBC had forts a few rods apart Fort du Bas de la Riviere NWC and Fort Alexander HBC on the south side, near Lake Winnipeg.

Daniel William Harmon (1778-1845) son Daniel Harmon and Lucrecia Dewey from Vermont.  joined NWC (1800-1810) working east of the Rockies; NWC (1810-1819) working New Caledonia; 1820 returned to Vermont but not officially retired until 1821.  On October 10, 1805 Daniel Williams Harmon took a mixed descent wife (Cree and French), Elizabeth (Lizzette) Laval and later formalized his marriage to her in Burlington, Vermont. Some of their fourteen children were: 
    George Harmon Metis (1807-1813), 
    unnamed premature Metis twin boys (1810-1810), 
    Polly Harmon Metis b-1811
    Sally Harmon Metis b-1817

Alexander Henry the younger (1764-1814) in a brigade to Red River contained 4 women, Michel (Coloret) Langlois wife and daughter, bowman Andre Lagassers (La Gasse) wife and one unnamed woman.  La Gasse was at Flathead post in 1813.  His brother Charles La Gasse was with David Thompson (1800-1811) and (1811-1821) Columbia District.  Charles La Gasse Metis (1838-1874) of Columbia District might be his son?

(II)-Thomas Hodgson, Metis (1789/1790-1865) employed HBC & NWC at Albany (1800-1814) with brother (II)-James Hodgson, Metis b-1785 employed HBC (1800-1814), they joined their father on the Ottawa River. 

(II)-James Hodgson, Metis b-1785 Albany, employed HBC (1800-1814) Albany, brother (II)-Thomas Hodgson, Metis (1789/1790-1865) born Albany sons (I)-John Hodgson Sr. b-1763 and Indian Woman:  James married (II)-Caroline Goodwin, Metis daughter (I)-Robert Goodwin (1761-1805) and Mistigoose (Jenny) daughter Puckethwanisk.  Children not traced

Antoine Houl (Houle), Metis b-1800 Pembina, Red River, a hunter, married Julie Metis b-1810 Pembina, Red River.

(I)-John Isbister b-1784 joined HBC (1800-1824) working mostly Eastman returning to Orkney 1822 from Moose with his Metis children, he returned to Moose as a free hunter (1823-1824) returning to Europe in 1824.   

Martin Jerome, Metis b-1800 Red River des Metis, a hunter,  married about 1827 Red River, Elizabeth Wilkie, Metis b-1809 Pembina, Red River.

(I)-James Keith (1782-1852) and brother (I)-George Keith were recruited in Scotland for the XY Company and signed contracts in Montreal

(III)-Thomas Posk Kipling, Metis b-1800, Hudson Bay, died after 1870, son (II)-John Kipling, Metis, (1781-1849) and Nancy Saulteuse (1778-1840/43); married 1st Nancy Indian b-1810 Dakota, died after 1870, 2nd married about 1843, Sophia.  Still living with Nancy Indian in 1870.  Joined HBC (1821-1822) IIe a la Crosse, (1823-1825) Red River, (1828-1860) Columbia District

Pierre Laferte (Theroux) Metis (1800-1865) joined HBC (1851-1864) English River, Red River, Swan River, married Marie Ann Genereux
    Oliver Laferte Metis (1828-1873) married Madeleine Faille Metis b-1829 daughter Toussant Faille Metis (1795-1875)
    Marie Anne Laferte Metis
    Catherine Laferte Metis

Alexis Joseph Fafard Laframboise, born February 4, 1763, Trois Rivers, Quebec, died April 02, 1800 Fort Michilimackinac, Michigan son Jean Baptiste Fafard and Genevieve Exupere Trotter Labissoniere: 1st married March 19, 1792 St. Ignace, Mackinac Island Michigan, 2nd marriage July 21, 1796 St. Ignace, Mackinac Island, Michigan,  Marguerite Sauragesse Sauteause born Fort Detroit, Michigan.

Red River des Metis, marriage Jean Baptiste Lagemoniere, a bigamist, born December 26, 1778, died September 7, 1855, married 1800, 1st Josephte Indian and  married 2nd 1806 Maskinouge, Marie Anne Gaboury, born August 15, 1780, Quebec, died Decenber, 1875 daughter Joseph Gaboury and unknown.  Possible (IV)-Joseph Gaboury b-1735 and his second wife Genevieve Toupin, veuve de Nicolas QAmiot-Villneuve.   Marie Anne Gaboury claimed to have the first European child born in Red River and Fort Edmonton but it is likely she was a Metis.

Jean Baptiste Lagimodiere (1778-1855) likely also a Metis son John Baptist Lagimodiere and Josephte Beauregard.  Employed NWC 1800 at Grand Portage (Minnesota), and Red River same year, 1805 in Quebec, 1806 at Pembina, (1807-1811)  Fort Edmonton, 1811 Red River, 1811/1812 Pembina, 1812 Red River, 1815/16 Montreal
1st married 1800 Red River Josrphte Indian and had 3 daughters who he abandoned
    Marie Antoinette Rose Lagimodiere Metis b-1801 Red River/Pembina, married Jean Baptist Robillard
    Elisabeth Lagimodiere Metis b-1803 Red River/Pembina
    LeReine Lagimodiere Metis b-1807 Red River/Pembina

2nd marriage Marie Anne Gaboury (1780-1875) Metis?
    Reine Laginodiere Metis? b-1807 Red River/Pembina
    Jean Baptiste Lagimodiere Metis b-1807 Fort Meadows (Fort Augustus, Edmonton)
    Julie Lagimodiere Metis b-1809 Fort Meadows (Fort Augustus, Edmonton) married (VII)-Louis Riel (1844-1885)
    Marie Josette (Cypress) Lagimodiere Metis? b-1810 Cypress Hills, bapt 1818 married Alexis Nault Metis b-1815 
    Benjamin Lagimodiere Metis? b-1811
    Apolline (Pauline)Lagimodiere Metis? b-1813   

Antoinette LaJunairndre born 1800 Red River des Metis Settlement daughter Jean Baptiste LaJunairndre.

Francois Laquitte, Metis b-1800 Pembina, Red River, a hunter, married Isabelle, Metis b-1805 Pembina.

Marie Lambert born 1800 Rabasca (Athabasca) daughter Robert Lambert, living St. Boniface 1870.

Joseph La Porte Jr., Metis born 1800/10 son Joseph Duchene La Prairie or Mushkedewinn (Prairie Man) and Pimeegeeshigoqua Ojibwa woman.

Joseph Laroque, Metis, born Prairie du Chien, married Sioux Woman, Prairie du Chien, Wisconsin.

Marie Laroque, Metis, b-1801 Prairie du Chein, Wisconsin
Catherine Laroque, Metis, b-1804 Prairie du Chein, Wisconsin
Jeanbaptiste Laroque, Metis, b-1805 Prairie du Chein, Wisconsin

Marguerite Lavallee, Metis, b-1800 Red River des Metis, daughter Ignace Lavalle (1760-1836/49) and Josephte Cree b-1786.

Francis Lebranche born 1800 Red River des Metis, married about 1836 Michigan Agelique b-1813 Wisconsin, living Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan 1850 census.

Joseph Letendre, Metis b-1800 Red River des Metis, a hunter, married Christine b-1826 Red River, likely second marriage.

Louis Laudry born 1800 Red River des Metis Settlement son William Laudry, living St Norbert, Red River 1870.

Joseph Lewis alias Levy Johnson a Mulatto (Negro Half Breed) from Manchester in New England and Indian woman.
    Margaret Lewis Metis [believed to have been in Rupert's Land but no dates or location recorded]  but it was too interesting not to record it.  Source HBC records. 

John Linklater born 1800 Red River des Metis Settlement son John Linklater.

John McKay Metis (1800-1856) son Donald McKay (1785-1820), John joined NWC  (1815-1821) & HBC (1821-1847) Temiscamingue married Indian girl, one child recorded;
    Henry McKay Metis d-1851

(II)-Mary McKay, Metis, b-1797, Albany Factory or Brandon House, daughter (I)-John McKay, b-1753/1763, Scotland died July 5, 1810 and (II)- Mary Favel, Metis, b-1775, Albany, daughter (I)-John Favell Jr.d-1784 and Tittmeg aka Titameg native woman

D. MacDonell born 1800 likely Lac des Sables (Sandy Lake), Minnesota married August 30, 1835 La Pointe, Wisconsin Genovefa Contois born 1816 likely Lac des Sables.

John McBean d-1854 joined the XY Co. as a clerk and retain his position when amalgamated in 1804 N.W.C.

Donald McKenzie, Metis b-1800 married (II)-Matildia Bruce, Metis b-1810 N.W.T. daughter (I)-Benjamin Bruce b-1775 and Matildia, Metis b-1778.

MacKenzie would record locations of St. Martin's Bay, Dog Head, Long Point, Eggs Island, Playgreen Lake and Popular River.  What is now known as Buffalo Head MacKenzie called Ox Head and Ox Strait.

(I)-John George McTavish (1778-1847) a Nor'Wester from James Bay married (II)-Charlotte Thomas Metis (1788-1843) the daughter of (I)-John Thomas (1751-1822) Governor Moose Fort,

Angelique Methot, Metis b-1800 Red River married before 1825 Red River Francois Fournier, Metis b-1796, Red River, a hunter . 1850 census.  (Francois b-1793) Genealogy First Metis Nation. 

Louise Moatwas b-1800 daughter chief Uhlahee of Celilo Falls, near Dallas, Oregon Territory; 1st married Fort Vancouver, Basile Poirier of Montreal, 2nd married Issac Labelle.

(John Moore born 1800 Red River des Metis Settlement son John Moore.

Benjamin Morreau born 1800 died January 17, 1880 LaPointe, Wisconsin.

Francois Naud (Renaud) Metis b-1800 joined HBC (1829-1839) Fort Timiaskaming (Ontario)  established 1794, married 1838 Elizabeth McPherson Metis 

Legard Nolin b-1800, living 1870 census Sugar Island, Michigan.

Nicolas Nolin b-1800, living 1870 census Sugar Island, Michigan.

Angelick Ojibway, Ojibwa Metis b-1800 Sault Ste Marie wife of Gitsheo Ojibwa an Indian, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.  

(I)-James Peebles Sr. (1778/83-1840) joined HBC (1801-1836) Albany District, married Ann an adult native woman bapt 1836, Red River epouse 1842, John Fielding
    (II)-William Peebles Metis b-1810 bapt 1842, married and baptised 1842 Albany Mary d-1846, 2nd marriage 1845 Catherine b-1830 1845
    (II)-James Peebles Jr. b-1820 bapt 1833 married 1842 Albany, Betsy Morrison Metis 
    (II)-Charlotte Peebles Metis bapt 1833
    (II)-John Peebles Metis (1836-1842)
    (II)-Eleanor (Ellen) Peebles Metis bapt 1836 married 1850 John Linklater 
    (II)-Robert Peebles Metis bapt 1836
    (II)-Sophia Peebles Metis b-1826 Albany bapt 1836 married 1845 William Thomas (5)(ID # 4905) born 1824 North West, a Cree Metis; 2nd Sutherland bapt 1836

Agathe Peltier (Azure), Metis b-1800 Pembina.  1850 census.  (Agathe Azure b-1806 married to Pierre Pelletier, Metis b-1804 N.W.T.)  Genealogy First Metis Nation.

Azure Peltier (Pelletier), Metis b-1800 Pembina, Red River, a hunter, married Mary Metis b-1805 Red River des Metis. 

Jean Baptiste Phillips (Phillipe), Metis b-1800, Prairie du Chien, a hunter.

Francis Pickette b-1800 Michigan, living 1850 census Sault Ste. Marie, Wisconsin, listed as a voyager.

Sault Ste. Marie, birth, Francis Piquette, Ojibwa Metis,  listed March 28, 1836 treaty.

Ignace Poitras b-1800 likely Red River son Andre Poitras (Poitra) (1762/63-1831) and Marguerite Grant, Metis, b-1789-1792, or more likely another  Indian Woman.

Louis Ponsand b-1800 Canada, married Josette b-1810 Red River des Metis, living 1850 census Sault Ste. Marie, Wisconsin, listed as a voyager.

(III)-William Richards Metis d-1811, Metis employed HBC (1800-1811),Albany and Moose, son (II)-John Richards, Metis and Indian Woman, married (II)-Eleanor Thomas Metis b-1780 daughter (I)-John Thomas (1751-1822) and Margaret Indian d-1813
    (IV)-William Richards Metis bapt 1808
    (IV)-James Richards Metis b-1811

Manitoulin Island, Georgian Bay, birth (III)-Charlotte de Rocheblave, Metis baptised July 14, 1804 Mackinac daughter (II)-Noel Rocheblave died 1805 and Nigans Ottawa, died 1862  

Pierre Savoyard dit Berthelet, Metis b-1800 N.W.T. son Toussaint Savoyard dit Berthelet and Marguerite Sauteuse (Chippewa); married Louise Dubois, Metis b-1805, N.W.T. daughter Francois Dubois, b-1775 and Angelique Lariviere, b-1775, N.W.T.  

St. Louis, Missouri, birth 1800/01 Joseph F Robidoux son Joseph Robidoux (1783-1868) and Eugene deLisle 

(I)-Andrew Setter (1779-1870) joined HBC (1800-1823) York Factory, assigned (1815-1816 Pqaint River, Saskatchewan District, assigned (1816-1818) Fort Edmonton then to Red River where he married 1816 North West or 1821 Beaver Creek Margaret (Peggy) (Spence) b-1790 born North West an English Metis.  
    (II)-James Setter Metis bapt 1821
    (II)-George Setter Metis bapt 1821
    (II)-Margaret Setter Metis bapt 1821
    (II)-Isabella Setter Metis bapt 1821
    (II)-Elizabeth Setter Metis bapt 1822 married 1840 Red River Robert William Miller (1798-1843)
    (II)-Anne Setter Metis bapt 1824 married (I)-William Scott (1815-1874)
    (II)-Catherine Setter Metis bapt 1827
    (II)-Thomas Setter Metis bapt 1830
    (II)-Mary Setter Metis bapt 1834
    (II)-John Setter Metis bapt 1866  married 1857  Elizabeth Gowler

Edward St. Arnauld born 1800 likely Lac des Sables (Sandy Lake), Minnesota married August 30, 1835 La Pointe, Wisconsin Maria Descarreaux born 1810 likely Lac des Sables.

(I)-Peter Spence (1777-1855) joined HBC (1800-1819) Moose (Ontario) retired Vaudreuil to join family.  Married 1819 (II)-Charlotte Thomas Metis (1788-1843) daughter (I)-John Thomas (1751-1822) and Margaret Indian d-1813
Charlotte's 2nd married November 8, 1819, 1st marriage 1803 (I)-John George McTavish (1778-1847) he deserted her.
           (II)-John Spence, Metis b-1811
           (II)-Isabella Spence, Metis b-October 26, 1809
           (II)-Ann Spence, Metis b-1813
           (II)-James Russell, Metis b-1821
           (II)-Charlotte Spence, Metis b-June 14, 1823, married John Ball son James Bell and Mary Knight, source Jean Pierre Knight
            (II)-Charles Spence, Metis born February 1, 1825
            (II)-Hanna Spence born April 21, 1828
            (II)-Henry Thompson Spence, Metis born April 15, 1833 

Josette Spence, Metis, married several times, is from Lake Superior Ojibwa, lived Upper Mississippi, applied November 3, 1870 Lake Superior Script, rejected for script, no reason given. 

James Stevens, Ojibwa Metis, b-1800 Mackinac son Metis parents, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.

Joseph Vieul, Metis b-1800 Pembina, Red River, a hunter, married Mary b-1813 Red River.

Marguerite dit Plouffe Villebrune, b-1800 daughter Louis Villebrune, b-1780, Lower Canada and Marie Anne Zhezhegweweg Ojibwa, Nation of Collets; married (II)-Thomas dit Pishk Kipling, b-1792, died 1828/31. 

Nineteen births are recorded at the Red River des Metis Settlement.  This would imply a population of 347 people in the Metis Settlement.  

Bird Mountain, Saskatchewan:  Daniel William Harmon (1778-1845) said the Cree and Ojibwa in this quarter have been so long accustomed to using European trade goods that it would be difficult to obtain a livelihood without them; especially fire arms to kill game.  They have almost lost the use of the bow and arrow.  It is noteworthy that the Native people were still using the bow and arrow on the bison (buffalo) hunt in the 1770's, finding them just as effective as the gun. 

The early Hudson Bay Company offspring did not get classed as a separate ethnic/racial entity prior to this time.  Most Metis were dispersed to the Indian hunting grounds each winter.  The company also removed all British servants who retired or were dismissed so as to eliminate any chance of them becoming free traders.  Very few H.B.C. officers' native sons gained permission to travel to Britain.   Few Metis became company servants; the few who did  were classified as 'Native of Hudson Bay' or even as English in order to avoid the wrath of London.  Those genealogists who trace their ancestors to this period run into much confusion.  The Hudson Bay Company records are not to be trusted as they were falsified on many occasions. 

John Tanner encountered Ozawwendib (Yellow Head), son of Weshkobug (The Sweet), an Ojibwa, who lived at Leech Lake.  This man was one of those who make themselves into women and are called women by the Indians.  They are commonly called Agokwa; a word which is expressive of their condition..

James Grant of the N.W.C. is posted at the outlet of Rainy Lake Post until 1804 when he is replaced by Hugh Faries. (1776-1852)

Prairie du Chien, birth Joseph Brisbois, Metis died 1849 son Michel Brisbois (1759-1837) and Domitelle Gauthier de Verville born 1781 Prairie du Chein; married 1826 Marie Domitelle Fraser.

At Fort Chipewyan, the abandoned wife of Morin is taken by old James Mackenzie to be resold into virtual slavery.

The North West Company shipped to Britain, furs valued at £144,000, and the Hudson Bay Company furs to Britain are a mere £38,000. In terms of total furs harvested, the Hudson Bay Company is still a minor player. It is noteworthy to remember that it was 2,750 miles from Montreal to Athabaska, yet the Hudson Bay Company profits continued to drop. By 1801 dividends dropped to four per cent.

No less than 14 members of the McTavish and McGillivary clans worked in the North West Company fur trade.

The McKenzie clan was also evident.  Henry McKenzie, first cousin of Alexander McKenzie, arrived in Canada at twenty one years of age with his brother Donald McKenzie from the Loch Broom area of Scotland. Two other brothers, Roderick and James McKenzie, were already established in the North West Company. A fifth brother, John McKenzie, sent his son Kenneth McKenzie to take up land grants in Glengarry, Upper Canada. John, however, took no part in the fur trade.  It is noteworthy that when James McKenzie was at Fort Chipeway, he sexually abused the Indian women, and when the Indian husbands complained, he threatened to kill them if they tried to recover them.  Many received beatings- or so reports Philip Turner.

Jesuit Father Jean Joseph (1728-1800), the Swiss, died March 16, 1800, and with him the Society of Jesus became extinct in Canada.  Daniel William Harmon (1778-1845), a clerk who would become Superintendent beyond the Rocky Mountains with the North West Company, commented that there is no Sabbath in this North West Country.  Knowing that the young Daniel William Harmon (1778-1845) is an idealistic religious person, they quipped that there is no God and no Devil in the wilderness; meaning no priests, and therefore no sin.   Daniel William Harmon (1778-1845) was indentured April 29 for 7 years and departed Montreal for Grand Portage with 30 canoes for the North West.  When Harmon passed Sault Ste Marie they teamed up with another 35 canoes, containing some 300 men all westward bound.  On July 3 three canoes full of Iroquois traders and their families left Grand Portage for the upper Red River to hunt beaver.  Daniel William Harmon (1778-1845) wrote July 8:  Mons Mayotte took a woman of this country for a wife or rather concubine.  Mr. Miller is in charge of the Hudson Bay Post at Red River.  Harmon writes that the Canadian possess lively and fickle dispositions, rarely subject to depression of spirits.  They are not considered brave, but when danger strikes they- as they say- play the man.

Napoleon Bonaparte reclaimed the Louisiana Territory in the Treaty of San Ildeionso for France.  The population of Spanish Louisiana had grown from 7,500 to nearly 50,000 when France regained possession.  France and Spain went to war.

Sault Ste Marie became part of the Indiana Territory.  The traders are traveling in brigades of as many as ten canoes, whereas previous brigades seldom exceeded three or four. 

Prairie Buffalo (Bison)
Prairie Bison
Approximately fifty million bison (buffalo) are on the continent, most of them west of the Mississippi valley, down from about seventy million in the 1500's.  

A quarter of a million gallons of liquor is being brought to the prairies each year in trade.  This was appalling, as the native population is about one hundred and twenty thousand people.

Red River Cart
Red River carts were used from 1800 to 1900.

Red River carts are being developed for prairie travel; being made entirely of wood.  The Plains Indians, when referring to these carts, called them half wagon- half man because they only had two wheels and a Metis precariously astride the vehicle.

Moonias is the term given by the Metis and Indians of the Northwest to a greenhorn or tenderfoot who had not learned the ways of the area.  The Nor'wester followed the Voyager tradition of acquiring Country Wives.  When he wanted one of the Native daughters to live with him, he made a present to the parents of the damsel, such articles as he may suppose would best please them.  Should they accept the articles offered, the girl remains with the man unless either does not agree in which case they would then separate.  The gifts are forfeit no matter how short the marriage.

The British Hudson Bay Company men this year surpassed, in numbers, the Canadian North West Company men in the taking of Indian women.  However, they never referred to their Country Women as wives.

John B. Corbin is recorded as commandant of the Lac Coutereille Department.

(II)-Richard Thomas is born 1800 (some records say 1806) in the Albany District of the Hudson Bay, North West Territories.  He arrived Red River 1820, baptized November 13, 1837, and died July 8, 1860, at Little Britain, Red River.  He is the son of (I)-Thomas Thomas born 1881 and (II)-Eleanor Thomas (who also married 1822 Peter Foy) daughter (I)-John George Thomas born 1766 and Neenish Cree.  Thomas married about 1820 (II)-Eleanor Thomas born 1805 died June 25, 1878, baptized November 13, 1837, daughter (I)-John George Thomas alias Thomas Thomas born 1766 and Mienish Cree.

The number of Metis women and children directly dependant on the North West Company is estimated as one thousand.

The Kutenai, who live west of the Rocky Mountains, came to trade at Rocky Mountain House, Alberta.  Charles Lagrasse,  Pierre Leblanc and his wife went to the Kutenai Country, Oregon Territory.

The Dakota, numbering 400, attacked the Sandy Lake Ojibwa band after they separated from the Pillager band.  The Dakota destroyed nearly the whole camp at Cross Lake including women and some children.

Louisiana by secret treaty is returned to France.  The Louisiana Acadian people introduced okra into their culture, being introduced by African mixed bloods.  Okra is a staple of the gumbos for the future French-Acadia-Cajun culture.  Acadia-Cajuns had no problem intermarrying with African, Indian, Metis and all European peoples.  They freely borrowed from other cultures but most mixed bloods were incorporated into the evolving Cajun culture.  Unlike their southern counterpart the Acadian (Cajun) rarely owned slaves but some of the more wealthier Acadians did own slaves.  Its questionable if these slave owners were true Acadians.   

Three very unique high bred cultures had evolved in America based on aboriginal traditions, a dash of European traditions, and are often called, mixed blood cultures vs. the great melting pot.  The most significant by numbers is the Metis culture of the Old and New North West of America.  The East Coast Mixed Blood Acadian culture are more aligned with the beliefs and values of the Metis culture and are in the process of searching for their roots.  The south coast mixed blood Cajun culture descended from the Acadian culture but is very unique in its nature.  The Cajuns however are more closer aligned with the Metis culture, than the American culture.  The Cajun culture is trying to understand its roots.  All three cultures are built on the foundation of the aboriginal peoples who have spent over 50,000 years trying to get it right.

January 3:   Alexander Henry the younger, Metis (1764-1814), the younger, wrote :  I got rid of my bedfellow (Country Wife) who returned to her father with good grace.  Henry left a string of wives and Metis children across the west.

January 19:  Michilimackinac, baptism, Marie Louise of the Saulteux Nation as witnessed by Sieur F Catin.

February 16:  St. Charles, Mo. marriage (IV)-Simon Lepage, Metis, son (III)-Joseph Lepage, Metis, b-1750 and Genevieve Frechet: married Madeleine Saucier, 

March 21:  Michilimackinac, baptism, Marie Laframboise daughter Alexis Lagramboise and dame Joseph Adhemar.

April:  Andrew Henry (1775-1833) is at Nasville, Tennessee and departed for St. Genevieve in Upper Louisiana, this is likely the son of Alexander Henry the elder (1739-1824).

April 20:  Michilimackinac, baptism of an adult woman of the Sauteux Nation.

April 29:  (I)-James Keith (1782-1851) and brother (I)-George Keith sons James Keith Sr. and Isabella Bruce of Scotland, they joined NWC this date and James worked (1800-1813) on the prairies and worked (1813-1821) Columbia District.  James Keith had two wives and at least two children. Early in his life he married the Metis daughter of Jean Baptiste Cadot with whom he had two daughters 
    (I)-Helen Keith Metis b-1811
    (II)-Mary Keith Metis b-1814). 
He provided for them in a will written at Fort Chipewyan on January 19, 1820 with the following preamble: It having fallen to my lot (a most lamented and almost unavoidable consequence of the situation and country wherein I have passed such a lapse of time and which I trust will be viewed with that Christian indulgence, due to human frailty and imperfection) to have two reputed children, Helen and Mary whom I have adopted. He married his second cousin, Susan Angus on July 8, 1845.

May 7:  The US Congress divided the Northwest Territory into two parts.  The western part became Indiana Territory and the eastern section remained the Old Northwest Territory.

July: Alexander Henry the Younger (1764-1814) led a brigade up (down/) the Red River passing Sault a La Biche (St. Andrews Rapids (Manitoba) to trade among the Cree and Assiniboine.

August 17:  Alexander Henry the Younger (1764-1814) led a Red River brigade of 4 canoes with 21/25 people meeting with the Ojibwa at the mouth of the Assiniboine River to trade for dried buffalo (Bison).  Two horses followed along the river banks.  They visited the first NWC post and colony on the Red River at the mouth of the Pembina River.  The fort was well defended against the Dakota Sioux.  There were 44 canoes loaded with Indians and their families mostly Salteurs (Chippewas) and a few Ottawas..  Flatmouth, a noted Indian mentioned in connection with the explorations of Lieut. Z. M. Pike, was among the Indians, also, Maymiutch, Charlo, Corbeau, Short Arms, and Buffalo

The Red River Brigade was sent to firmly establish Alexander Henry the younger, Metis (1764-1814) as Governor of the Red River Department for NWC.  The brigade consisted of the following:

In the first canoe there were — First, Alexander Henry, the bourgeois ; second, Jacques Barbe, voyageur, conductor or bowman; third, Etienne Charbonneau, voyageur, steerer; fourth, Joseph Dubois, voyageur, steerer; fifth, Angus McDonald, voyageur, midman; sixth, Antoine Lafrance, voyageur midman ; seventh, Pierre Bonga, a negro servant of Mr. Henry.

Second canoe — Eighth, Michael Langlois (sometimes mentioned as Coloret), clerk, with his wife and daughter; ninth, Andre Lagasse (sometimes mentioned as Lagace or La Gasser), voyageur, conductor, with his wife; tenth, Joachim Daisville (sometimes mentioned as Danville and once as Rainville in transcribing Henry's Journal), voyageur, steerer; eleventh, Andre Beauchemin, voyageur, midman ; twelfth, Jean Baptiste Benoit, voyageur, midman. 

Third canoe — Thirteenth, Jean Baptiste Demerais, interpreter, wife and two children; fourteenth, Jean Baptiste Larocque, Sr., voyageur, conductor; fifteenth, Jean Baptiste Larocque, Jr., voyageur, steerer; sixteenth, Etienne Roy, voyageur, midman; seventeenth, Francois Rogers, Sr., voyageur, midman.   

Fourth canoe — Eighteenth, Joseph Masson (or Maceon), voyageur, conductor, wife and child; nineteenth, Charles Bellegarde, voyageur, steerer; twentieth, Joseph Hamel, voyageur, midman ; twenty-first, Nicholas Pouliotte, voyageur, midman.

September 2, the brigade divided; a portion remaining for the winter near where Morris, Manitoba, is situated, the others, viz., Henry, Demerais, Bellegarde, Daisville, Rogers, Benoit, the two Larocques, Beauchemin, Lafrance, Barbe, Charbonneau, McDonald and Bonga, going on to Park River. They arrived at Park River September 8, and built a post. The choice of the trading posts was largely determined by the presence of beaver dams. Park River, Pembina, Tongue and Turtle rivers, were particularly desirable "on account of the dams along those streams. The same was true of the Sheyenne and Knife rivers, and their tributaries, and other streams emptying into the Missouri River or its branches. 

September 26:   (I)-Peter Fidler (1769-1822), wife Mary Swampy Cree (1771-1826) and eighteen men began building Chesterfield House for the Hudson Bay Company at the mouth of the Red Deer River where it enters the South Saskatchewan River.

September 28:   John Wills of the XY Company began building a trading house 100 yards from Chesterfield House.

October 1:  Spain ceded Louisiana to France in a secret treaty.

October 6:   Pierre Belleau of the North West Company began building west of Chesterfield house, a common stockade which was to be shared as the natives were not pleased with this intrusion.

October 21:  Michilimackinac, baptism, Charles Maillet son Charles Maillet and Elizabeth McDonald.

November 10:  Chesterfield House, birth, (II)-George Fidler, Metis, died July 1, 1846 Red River son of (I)-Peter Fidler (1769-1822)  and Mary Swampy Cree, Indian (1771-1826);  married Nancy Black, Metis, b-1810, NWT, daughter John Black and Marguerite Sauvahesse.  The Fidler's arrive here September 26, 1800.

November 25:   Archibald Norman McLeod who joined NWC 1796 of Swan River Fort wrote that he sent E. Ducharm for red deer; LaRose and H. Ducharm for birch; and Valle for wood.  Roy took a dose of physics and he scolded Girardin (Giradin) for stupid observations of Daniel William Harmon (1778-1845) and Collin. Old Parant is busy making a slay (sleigh) and Danis (Dannis) is making window shutters.

December 12:  Washington DC was established as the capital of US.

December 21:   Alexander Henry the elder (1739-1824) sends a stallion and two mares to (IV)-Jean Baptiste Cadotte (1761-1818) at Red Lake.  The intent is to forward them to Mr. Peter Grant (1764-1848) at Rainy Lake.  Michael Langlois is currently stationed at Reed Lake.




(II)-William Auld, Metis son (I)-William Auld (1770-1830) and Mary Indian or Metis, epouse (I)-William Tait b-1795, Orkney;  (I)-William Auld (1770-1830) abandoned his wife and their children when he returned to Scotland 1814.  William worked HBC (1820-1821) at York Factory.

Michael Bazelette, Ojibwa Metis, arrived 1833 Mackinac, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.  Rejected as a La Point Indian (mother?)

John William Bell born 1801 likely La Pointe, Wisconsin married July 24, 1836 La Pointe, Wisconsin Margarite Brabant born 1818 likely La Pointe, Wisconsin.

Edmonton House, birth (II)-Levi Bird, Metis (1801-1864) son (I)-James Bird (1773-1856) and Mary Kelly Cree Indian.

Jean Baptiste Bouvier Sr. (1784-1838) from St. Ours, Quebec, employed NWC (1801-1821) is listed as a voyageur 1804 to English River a historic meeting place of the Dene and Cree nations in N.W. Saskatchewan.  He was later employed HBC (1821-1838) same District.  He married English River, Marguerite Laraute, Metis and 5 children are recorded:  
    Jean Baptiste Bouvier Jr. Metis, (1817/23-1877) Red River or English River, married Catherine Beanlieu and 5 children
    Michel Bouver, Metis, 
    Joseph Bovier, Metis b-1817,  English River,  HBC(1834-1877) English River and from 1839 Mackenzie River
    Antoine Bouvier, Metis,  
    Marguerite Bouvier, Metis

Mary Cheveaux, Ojibwa, b-1801, arrived 1827 Mackinac, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.  Rejected, Wife of Joseph Cheveaux.  Of Mississippi origin.  [   ] say she is from Font du Lac

(II)-William Connolly b-1786/87 Lachine, Quebec, d-1849, Montreal, son (I)-William Connely (Conoly, Connelly); Joined NWC (1801-1821) assigned Red River area (1801-1818), assigned  Cumberland House (Saskatchewan) (1818-1821)  married 1803 Red River Suzanne, Pas-de-Nom d-1862 a Cree and together they had six children,  (1821-1824) made chief factor of HBC Lesser Slave Lake, transfered 1824 to New Caldonia, 1829 at Fort Vancouver, 1832 took his wife and 6 kids to Montreal where he disavowed his country marriage. In 1841 his first wife had moved to a convent in St. Boniface, Manitoba  In 1832 William Sr. married his cousin, Julia Woolrich, in Montreal.  Connolly willed his estate to his second wife, but Susanne’s oldest son, John Connolly challenged the will resulting in the courts supporting his claim of the validity of the first marriage. The extension of legal rights to country wives was precedent setting in Canada.  This effectively made William a bigamist.
HBC (1831-1833+) working Quebec 
Some of Suzanne's children are:
    (III)- John Connolly Metis
    (III)- Amelia Connolly Metis (1812-1890) married 1828 Fort Saint James (I)-James Douglas Metis (1803-1877). 
    (III)- William James Connolly Metis, b-1807 worked for the HBC (1825-1832) on the Pacific slopes
    (III)- Henry Connolly Metis d-1910 joined HBC (1838-1869) various posts then Esquimaux Bay, (deduced not proven) 

Peter Warren Dease Metis (1788-1863) of Mackinac, Michigan, son Dr. John Dease b-1744 and Jane French; he joined the XY Company in 1801, then NWC and finally HBC in 1821.  In 1825-27 he joined the Franklin Arctic expedition.  1828-1831 he was Chief Factor Mackenzie River District.  In the (1830-1837) he spent time on the Pacific Coast.  In 1837-39 he was back charting the Arctic.  He married Elizabeth Chouinard Metis and had 4 sons and 1 daughter.  He retired 1842 to Montreal   

Sault Ste Marie, birth (IV)-Charles Oakes Ermatinger Metis son (III)-Charles Oakes Ermatinger (1776-1853) and Charlotte Kalawabide (Kattawabide/Cattoonalute/Manacowe) who died 1880. 

(I)-Thomas Fraser (1777-1849) joined NWC (1801-1804?) Jacks Creek and Hays House, joined HBC (1821-1843) Abitibi, Moose, Timiskaming, died Abitibi, married (II)-Flora McTavish Metis bapt 1822 daughter (I)-John George McTavish (1778-1847) and (II)-Nancy McKenzie Metis 
    (II)-George Simpson Fraser Metis
    (II)-Francois Fraser Metis  

Simon Fraser (1776-1862) Born in Vermont of Loyalist Scottish-Catholic parents, became a North West Company partner in 1801.  Colin Robertson d-1842,  described him as "turbulent and not very devoted to the Company".  Colin however transferred his allegiance to H.B.C. and at best this was sour grapes.

Margaret Gournon born 1801 Ontario (MB7-4) which also lists Joseph Gournon living before 1801 Ontario.  Could be a reference to Sault Ste Marie, Ontario.

Peter Grant, b-1764 married 1801 Margaret Ahdiksongab aka Marthe Ckear Sky.

Green Bay, marriage (IV)-Pierre Antoine (Fanfan) Grignon, Metis (1777-1823) Green Bay (son espouse) as baptized August 6, 1787 Mackinac, son (II)-Pierre Grignon (1740-1795) and Menominee/Winnebago; married 1st 1801 Charlotte Pemonica, 2nd 1811 Marie Chellefoux. 

Marguerite Guernon, Metis, b-1801/02, upper Canada or USA, died June 23, 1871 St. Boniface, Manitoba daughter Joseph Guernon and Nowananikkee, b-1794; married, June 6, 1825, St. Boniface, Red River, Alexis L'Esperance, born November 28, 1796, Sorel, died December 11, 1890, St Francois Xavier, Manitoba, son Pierre L'Esperance and Marie Marguerite Aucoin.

Red River of the North, birth of Marguerite Marie Hamelin Metis died February 24, 1890 Little Canada, Minnesota daughter Jacques Hamelin son (Jacques Hamelin and Marie Anastasie Landry) and Angelique Tourangeau; Marguerite married Antoine Pepin who died January 31, 1851 St. Paul Minnesota

Joseph Hamelin (Hamel/Amelin) is sent by Alexander Henry the elder (1739-1824) to replace Lagasse at the Hairy Hills Post (northeastern North Dakota). However, he remained an employee of the H.B.C. Red River Department until 1805.  In 1807 he was working for  Francois Freniere & Co. to winter St Peters River (Minnesota River).

Jacques Hamelin son Jacques Hamelin and Marie Anastasie Landry was in Red River des Metis this year with wife Angelique Tourangeau where she gave birth to Marguerite Marie Hamelin, Metis died February 24, 1890 Little Canada, Minnesota , married Antoine Pepin died January 31, 1851 St. Paul, Minnesota.

Edward Harman, Metis, alias Edward Addotte, of the Pembina Ojibwa Band applied Lake Superior script February 27, 1871, rejected, applied 1865 for La Pointe script and received La Pointe 1854 script. 

Alexander Henry the younger, (1764-1814) of NWC since 1791 is at Pembina Post, Red River and wrote; " Never wish again to put my foot there, if I can possibly avoid it."  Likely because of his involvement with numerous Indian girls?

Red River des Metis, birth Marie Rose Antoinette Lagemoniere, Metis, daughter Jean Baptiste Lagemoniere, b-1778 a bigamist, born December 26, 1778, died September 7, 1855, married 1st Josephte Indian and  married 1806 Maskinouge, Marie Anne Gaboury, born August 15, 1780, Quebec, died December, 1875 daughter Joseph Gaboury and unknown.  Possible (IV)-Joseph Gaboury b-1735 and his second wife Genevieve Toupin, veuve de Nicolas QAmiot-Villneuve.   Marie Anne Gaboury claimed to have the first European child born in Red River and Fort Edmonton but it is likely she was a Metis.  Marie Rose married Jean Baptiste Robillard Sr.  The Journal entry of 1807 says Jean Baptiste Lagimoniere, Louis Paquim, Charles Bellegarade are all married to Cree Women departed Grand Camp near Fort Pembina for the Saskatchewan River, to Fort Prairie (Edmonton).  Subsequent entries clearly identifies her as Indian or Metis.

Peter Lanoix (Lepissier) born 1801, died May 18, 1839 La Pointe, Wisconsin.

Antoine Lapierre b-1781/82 Canada 1st married Josephte Indian b-1795 most likely North West 2nd marriage Catherine Gagnon Metis b-1815 most likely North West 3rd marriage Bethsy Cree b-1815 most likely North West;.joined NWC (1801-1821) unknown location HBC (1821-1831) Island Lake and Oxford House
    Peter Lapierre Metis b-1827 Island Lake raised Red River married Delite Bouilli HBC (1846-1869) Swan River
        Pierre Lapierre Metis joined HBC (1861-1872) English River assigned 1867 Athabasca

Louis (Louison) Letendre dit Batoche, Metis b-1801 Red River des Metis, a hunter, married Marie Julie Hallett, Metis b-1801 Red River des Metis.  1850 census.  Sophia b-1770 Red River living with family possible mother Louis?.  (Louison b-1805 N.W.T. & Marie b-1810 daughter Henery Hallet b-1772 & 1st Indian, 2nd Catherine Dungas, Metis b-1780) Genealogy First Metis Nation.

Josephine F. Le Franche Metis b-1801 Red River daughter Francoise Bouet a Canadian and Pembina Indian lived Red River until 1821 rejected for Wisconsin script 1871

(I)-Robert Logan (1773-1866) joined NWC (1801-1814) Sault St. Marie, HBC (1814-1819) IIe a L:a Crosse, Saskatchewan, Lac La Pluie, retired Red River 1819.  
1st married 1821 Marie a Saulteaux Indian (bapt-1821-1838)
    (II)-Anne Logan Metis (1810-1866), married a McDonald
    (II)-Elizabeth Logan Metis b-1811, married (II)-William Sutherland son (I)-James Sutherland (1768/72-1806)
    (II)-Thomas Logan b-1813 Sault Ste Marie
    (II)-Mary Logan Metis (1814-1851) Sault Ste Marie
    (II)-Ellen Logan Metis (1817-pre1866) Rocky Depot at Swampy Lake, headwaters of the Hayes Eiver
    (II)-Robert Logan Metis b-1819 Lac La Pluie
    (II)-William Logan Metis (1821-pre1866)
    (II)-John Logan Metis (1822-pre1866)
    (II)-Margaret Logan Metis b-1824
    (II)-Kenneth Logan Metis (1825/26-1859) married 1850 (III)-Susan McGillivray Metis daughter (II)-Simon McGillivray Metis (1792-1840) and Therese Raefe b-1819
        (III)-Alice Logan Metis b-1855 and other daughters are known but not recorded.
    (II)-Jane Logan Metis b-1829 married pre1866
    (II)-Nathaneal Logan Metis (1832-1858)
    (II)-Barbara Logan Metis b-1834 married Edmond Lorenzo
2nd marriage 1839 Mrs Sarah Ingham (1803-1886) daughter William Smith
    (II)-Sarah Logan Metis bapt 1840 married Henry McDermot
    (II)-Alexander Logan Metis bapt 1841 married (II)-Maria Lane b-1849?
    (II)-James Logan Metis bapt 1841, d-pre1866
    (II)-Alice Logan Metis bapt 1845.

(II)-Jane Longmoor, Metis, born Hudson Bay daughter (I)-Robert Longmoor and Indian Woman.

(I)-Donald MacKay (1753-1833) aka Mad MacKay brought his young Metis son Spence MacKay from York Factory to Scotland.  It is noteworthy that MacKay claims to have spent 15 winters in Canada.

(I)-Donald McKenzie (1783-1851) employed NWC (1801-1810) Athabasca, Pacific Fur Company (1810-1813) & NWC (1814-1821) & HBC (1821-1822) all  Columbia District, HBC (1822-1823) Saskatchewan District and Bow River expedition.  HBC (1823-1833) Red River then Lake Superior retired 1834 New York.  He had 13 children
1st married a Metis likely (II)-Mary McKay Metis daughter (I)-Alexander McKay
    (II)-Caroline  McKenzie Metis bapt 1822 Columbia District
    (II)-Rachel McKenzie Metis bapt 1822 Columbia District
    (II)-Donald McKenzie Metis bapt 1825 Red River
2nd marriage 1825 Red River Adelgonde Droz b-1807 governess of his children, they had three children
    (II)-Jemima McKenzie  bapt 1827
    (II)-Roderick McKenzie  bapt 1830
    (II)-Moel Simpson McKenzie bapt 1832

Hugh (Laird) McGillis (1767-1848) of New York joined the N.W.C.  He married a Native woman and had seven Metis children.

George McGulpin Jr., Ojibwa Metis, b-1801 Mackinac son George McGulpin Sr., Ojibwa Metis, b-1762, Mackinac and Ojibwa Woman, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.

Nemiskau Lake birth (II)-Thomas Moar, Metis son (I)-Andrew Moar (1764-1767) employed HBC (1786-1836) married an Indian woman 

Joseph Morisseau, Metis, b-1801 NWT son Antoine Morisseau, b-1781, married 1800 NWT, Charlotte Sauteuse; married, Marie Desjarlais, b-1805, daughter Francois Desjarlais, b-1771, Quebec and Madeleine Roy. 

(I)-Edward Mowat (Moad) of Stromness, Orkney (1778-1862) joined  HBC (1801-1832) in Albany District, .married about 1822, Cat Lake, Albany District,.churched,  December 16,1836, Red River, Mary Indian b-1780 North West Territories. . 
    (II)-John Mowat Metis, 
    (II)-Andrew Mowat Metis, 
    (II)-Edward Mowat Metis, 
    (II)-Mary Mowat Metis, 
    (II)-Margaret Mowat Metis, 
    (II)-Isabella Mowat Metis and above were baptized April 18, 1833, when they retired to Red River. 
    (II)-David Mowat Metis baptised May 30, 1836 
    (II)-Thomas Mowat Metis baptized January 24, 1840.

Augustin Parisien, Metis b-1801 Red River des Metis, a hunter married Angelique McPherson, Metis b-1822 Red River.  1850 census.  (Augustin b-1810 & Angelique b-1820 daughter George McPherson b-1800 and Angelique Racette, Metis b-1803.) Genealogy First Metis Nation.

(I)-James Peebles (1778/83-1840) from Orkney employeed HBC (1801-1836) retired to Red River 1836.

Joseph Piquette 2nd, Ojibwa Metis, b-1801, Sault Ste Marie son Joseph Piquette, 1st and Ojibwa woman, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.

(I)-John Pritchard Sr. (1777-1856) employed XYC Red River (1801-1804) NWC (1804-1815) greater Red River area Souris River that feeds the Assiniboine, Nipigon, Pine Fort (Fort des Pinettes) Rivere Qu'Appelle.
1st married 1778 Indian woman might be Marie Sauvagesse b-1790 a Metis
    (II)-William Pritchard Metis (1813-1890)
    (II)-John Pritchard Metis b-1810/16/17 married Janet Matheson Indian or Metis
2nd marriage 1815 Catherine McGilvray born Mull, widow Hector McLean likely an Indian or Metis the HBC considered this family as Metis and confined them to the west bank of the Red River.
     (II)-Catherine Pritchard Metis bapt 1821 married 1840 John (Bushy) Matheson
    (II)-Anne Pritchard Metis bapt 1823 married 1846 Donald Polson
    (II)-Archibald Pritchard Metis bapt 1824 d-1910 married Emily Else
    (II)-Laetitia Pritchard Metis bapt 1826 married 1st 1847 Hugh Matheson; married 2nd James Cunningham
    (II)-Samuel Pritchard Metis bapt 1827 married Joanna Bannerman
    (II)-Elizabeth Pritchard Metis bapt 1829
    (II)-Hugh Pritchard Metis bapt 1831 d-1912
    (II)-Thomas Mortimer Pritchard Metis bapt 1833, died young
    (II)-Richard Pritchard Metis bapt 1835 married Catherine Matheson
It is noteworthy that not a single Pritchard married a HBC man.

Josephte Racette, Metis, b-1801 Red River des Metis married Jean Baptiate Cloutier, Metis b-1800 Pembina, Red River. 

(I)-Robert Rowland joined HBC (1801-1821) York Factory assigned Edmonton House (1814-1821) retired to Red River 1821.married 1824 (II)-Elizabeth (Betsy) Fleet (Flett) daughter (William Fleet (1762-1823) and Isabella a Saskatchewan River Indian (1775-1845)

Mrs. Augustus Rousseau, Ottawa Metis, b-1801 arrived 1835 Grand River, wife Augustus Rosseau listed March 28, 1836 treaty.  Lived out of the district part of last winter.  Governed by Mitchell's case.

Pierre Savoyard, Metis b-1801 Pembina, Red River, a hunter, married Louis Dubois, Metis b-1815 Red River des Metis.  1850 census  (Pierre b-1800 N.W.T. & Louise b-1805 daughter Francois Dubois b-1775 and Angelique Lariviere, Metis b-1775 Red River.)  Genealogy First Metis Nation.

Mrs Henry R. Schoolcraft, Ojibwa Metis, b-1801, arrived 1832 Mackinac, daughter Susan Johnson and wife of Henry R. Schoolcraft, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.

Oxford House, birth (II)-Jane Sinclair, Metis (1801-1861) daughter (I)-William Sinclair, Orkney (1766-1818) employed HBC (1782-1818) married Margaret Nahoway Cree or Metis; married 1816, (I)-James Kirkness (1774-1843) 

(I)-Thomas Stayner (1770-1827) employee HBC (1787-1801) married Keese-cow-e-cumacoat also Ke-che-cow-e-coot alias Wee-misti-coos (Betty Cocking) (1775-1835), Metis, daughter (I)-Matthew Cocking (1743-179) employee HBC (1765-1782) and Le-lo-es-com;  epouse (I)-John Pocock Holmes (1783-1858), employed HBC (1805-1821)

(I)-John Sutherland, employed HBC (1778-1812) married about this time 1st. Indian woman, at Albany, married 1822, Albany 2nd the widow (I)-Donald McPherson an Indian woman.

Jenny Southerland born 1801 Red River des Metis Settlement daughter Peter Southerland.

Francois St. Pierre, Metis b-1801 Pembina, Red River, a hunter, married Marie Laverdure, Metis  b-1813 Pembina, Red River.  1850 census.  (Francois b-1802 N.W.T. & Marie b-1810)  Genealogy First Metis Nation.

Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826) became president of the United States were 20% of the population were slaves out of a total population of 5 million people.  Sally Hemings (1773–1835), Jefferson's mistress slave for 25 years, was a blood relative of Jackson's wife.  She was Martha Jefferson's half sister.  Martha's father, John Wayles, had taken Betty Hemings, Sally's mother, as a slave concubine after the death of his third wife.  Betty bore him six children; of whom Sally was one.

Three births are recorded at the Red River des Metis Settlement.

This year appears to reflect a policy change at the Roman Catholic Mission at Mackinac.  The parish register of baptism, marriage and death no longer refers to Indians as savage but now references them by Nation name of birth.

The inner circle of the North West Company expanded this year to include High Gillies, (IV)-Jean Baptiste Cadotte (1761-1818), John McGillivray, d-1855, James McKenzie, and Simon Fraser (1776-1862) became one of the companies youngest partners.  

This year a total of 981 men were employed in the North West, 257 in the Athabasca Distrist, 75 in the English River District and 98 in the Saskatchewan River District.

The British Hudson Bay Company contends that some Canadian North West Company employees followed the example of (I)-Simon McTavish (1750-1804) and perverted the Indian custom of taking female slaves as wives, turning some of them into trade items to settle debt to the company.  Some of the girls were as young as nine or ten years old.  This, they contend, is a result of the Canadian Company policy to keep non partners in perpetual debt.  These exceptions appear to justify the actions of the British Hudson Bay Company men and  support Company rivalry, rather than account for social norms.  The common norm was the French custom of taking Country Wives.  Unfortunately, some of these were also temporary marriages of convenience.  Most traders concluded that the Country Ladies were a necessity to the trade, had excellent manners, and loved to dance.  The Canadian North West Company shipped furs valued at one hundred and forty four thousand pound sterling, whereas the British Hudson Bay Company shipped thirty eight thousand pound sterling this season.  Thomas Miller and eight Orkney from Albany Factory established themselves at Pembina and Red River.  A Mr. DesFond (DuFord) of 'XY' built at Riviere Aux Gratias with five men.  Augustin Cadotte (son Jean Baptiste?) and Mr. Crebassa, with 10 men for 'XY', also arrived in the area.

A new French Canadian Company referred to as the 'XY' Company came into existence to challenge the North West Company and the British Hudson Bay Company.  The competition was manageable until Alexander MacKenzie joined the company with a vendetta against (I)-Simon McTavish (1750-1804) of the North West Company.  The North West Company trade began to hurt and they declared war on the 'XY' Company, as well as on the potties (the English of the Hudson Bay Company)- as they called them.  War at this time was in the form of harassment.

Free trader Dominique Rousseau sent Monsieur Hervieu to set up a trading post near the Canadian stronghold at Grand Portage.  (II)-Duncan McGillivray, Metis, (1770-1808), brother of (II)-William McGillivray, Metis (1764-1825), sons (I))-William McGillivray and Susan Indian and nephew to (I)-Simon McTavish (1750-1804), and a senior partner destroyed his camp, threatening to kill him.  Rousseau took (II)-William McGillivray (1764-1825) to court and won a five hundred pound sterling judgment.  The North West Company had no legal right to restrict free trade, and the application of force to protect the monopoly would escalate.  Alexander Henry the younger, (1764-1814), recorded "that the perverted practice of trading young women's favors had reached the prairie Natives."  He is likely speaking of his own perversions.  "This practice is having an impact on the Gros Ventre, the Blackfoot, Blood and Piegan people".

Alexander Henry the younger, Metis (1764-1814) reported the use of Red River carts, and this is believed to be the first report saying that they are being used.   Grosse Guele wanted to trade his furs to ‘XY’, which Alexander Henry prevented.  Henry then went to the upper Tongue River and fought several battles with the women to get their furs, for which the 'XY' had already advanced goods to the natives. 

Four Iroquois traders of the North West Company were killed by the Gros Ventre on their way to the joint H.B.C.-N.W.C. Fort at Chesterfield House. Seventy five Iroquois traders were invited into a Gros Ventres (Atsina) village, where 25 Iroquois are killed. The brigade, upon reaching Fort Augustus, wanted to launch a retaliatory attack but were dissuaded by the Cree. The Gros Ventres continued to prey upon the Iroquois throughout the trading season. Peter Fiddler reports two Iroquois are killed when trying to make friends with the Fall Indians (Gros Ventres) not far from Chesterfield House.

Although most Indian traders were Algonquin, a few others mentioned were the Nipissing and Abenaki. (I)-Peter Fidler (1769-1822) mentioned the Bungees; who were actually the Plains Chippewa (Ojibwa) from the Great Lakes. (I)-William Tomison in the field (1760-1811), an Orkney, Factor of the Hudson Bay Company, claimed the North West Company and XY Company had employed over three hundred Eroquees or Mohawk Indians into the Saskatchewan River system this season alone. (I)-William Tomison said the Iroquois leave nothing from where ever they come. Daniel William Harmon (1778-1845) of the North West Company says that the Natives consider the Iroquois to be intruders. They do not attempt to keep the stock of animals good, they destroy both the young and old. Some Natives have threatened to kill them if they persist in destroying the animals on their lands.

January 1:   Red River:  Alexander Henry the younger, Metis (1764-1814) records that he awakened to find a girl in his bed, one of Chief Liard's daughters; Concomely's favorite daughter, after a New Years party where he was tipsy.  The devil himself could not have got her out.  Henry went on a bison (buffalo) hunt to escape her, but she remained upon his return.

January 30:   Red River Settlement:  Alexander Henry the younger, Metis (1764-1814) wrote:  I got rid of my encumbrance, who returned to her father Concomely.  Two days later, however, the lady returned.  He then began to refer to her as Her Ladyship; he nicknamed her Princess of Wales.  "He retained this Country Wife until his death (by drowning) at the west coast".  This is interesting given he abandoned his other wives and children and he married 1802  the daughter of Beau Pere the Buffalo as his Country Wife? 
I think he had two maybe three wives todate, so don't know who these children belong to.
    William Henry
    Nancy Henry Metis b-1806 married James Swain b-1797
    Elizabeth Henry Metis b-1810 Pembina married Jean Baptiste Collins Metis b-1784 of Red River      

February:   Archibald Norman McLeod joined NWC 1796 of Swan River Fort wrote that he sent Roy, Giradin, Dannis and Plante to trade with the Indians. 

March 14, 1801. the first child, not of Indian blood, was born at Pembina, to Pierre Bonga and his wife, both negroes. Pierre Bonga had been a slave of Capt. Daniel Robertson of Mackinaw, brought home from the West Indies, and was in the first canoe of the Red River Brigade of July, 1800.  In the fall of 1802, Joseph Duford of the X. Y. Company threatened to kill 
Bonga, and himself received a sound beating. Bonga left numerous descendants, one of whom was an interpreter at the Fort Snelling treaty of 1837.

May:   Petrus (Peter) Lanoix (LePissier) born 1801 died May 18, 1839 LaPointe, Wisconsin.

June: Alexander Henry the younger, (1764-1814) of NWC built a new post on the Pembina (North Dakota) leaving Michel Langlois in charge.  This month be received a partnership in the NWC.

June: Fort Assiniboine NWC on a rise was preparing for an attack of the Fall River or Gross Ventre Indians.  It was strengthened; block houses built over the gates and the bastions put in order, the Crees and Assiniboines having gone to attack the Gros Ventres, and a return visit was expected.  This fort was well built with plaster walls within and without and was sixteen rods in length and twelve in breadth (88 yards x 66 yards) with open fields about.  It was an important supply point but was abandoned April 28, 1805.

April 19:  A heavy snow caused Swan River (Manitoba) to overflow, and people who are making maple sugar had to leave the woods and return to the Fort: so wrote Daniel Harmon (1778-1845).  Archibald Norman McLeod joined NWC 1796 and his Rapid Indian wife and Metis son are stationed at Swan River Fort, a two days march from Harmon's Post.  Monteur and two Canadians visited Harmon, delivering mail from Fort des Prairies on the Saskatchewan River.  A half-breed  (Metis) boy aged 5 years could speak English, Cree, Ojibwa, Assiniboine and French, which so impressed Daniel Harmon (1778-1845) that he concluded the half-breed  (Metis) have a retentive memory, apt to learning.  The Metis gathered along the Hair Hills this year, a short distance from the Red River Settlement.  The women and children are left to protect the animals and their other possessions.  The men are presumed to be off hunting.  Alexander Henry the younger, Metis (1764-1814), a few years later, counted 45 men along the same hill.  It should be remembered that the Metis freely welcomed, into their abodes, the wives and children of those who are absent.  Groups of 20 people might be gathered under one single roof.  This should be remembered when you extrapolate numbers of people from a man count, tent or cabin count. 

 June 1:   Daniel William Harmon (1778-1845) estimates Fort Alexandra, up the Assiniboine River, supports (feeds) about 100 people.  Harmon observed a white child who was kidnapped and adopted by the Ojibwa in the Illinois Country in the 1780's as a small child.  He is now about 20 years old and is regarded as a Chief among the Ojibwa.  Archibald Norman McLeod joined NWC 1796 employed William Henry son? of Alexander Henry the elder  (1739-1824) and Frederick Goedike as clerks at Fort Alexandria up the Assiniboine River (Saskatchewan). Or the son of Alexander Henry the younger (1764-1814)  There was stored, at this Fort, the meat of 85 bison (buffalo) cows, 62 bags of pemmican weighing 90 lbs. each, and 9 kegs grease of 70 lbs. each.

September 21:   (I)-Peter Fidler (1769-1822) of the HBC returned to Chesterfield House.

September 22:  Florissant, Missouri, marriage Jean Baptiste Daniel Mure to (III)-Marie Marechal, Metis, daughter (II)-Francois Marechal, Metis, born March 31, 1751 Cahokia, (Illinois) and Marie Therese Riviere; 2nd marriage Marie July 2, 1817 Florissant, Missori Augustin Lefebvre. 

October:   Alexander Henry the younger, Metis (1764-1814) writes he traded from his Pembina Post with 10 Leech Lake Chippewa (Ojibwa) under Wiscoup (Sucre, Sweet).

October 11:   John Wills of the XY Company returned to the XY House next to the Chesterfield House.

October 11:  Michilimackinac, baptism, Male Champagne, Metis son Simon Champagne and a Savage Woman of the Schiouse Nation.

December 28:   Payet, an interpreter for Daniel William Harmon (1778-1845) at Fort Alexander, has taken a Native Cree wife, giving rum, dry goods etc. to a value of $200 to the parents as a gift.   The partners of these wedlock unions usually live in harmony.  Primault is another of Harmon's interpreters.




Only two births are recorded at the Red River des Metis Settlement.

(II)-John Auld, Metis son (I)-William Auld (1770-1830) and Mary Indian or Metis, epouse (I)-William Tait b-1795, Orkney;  (I)-William Auld (1770-1830) abandoned his wife and their children when he returned to Scotland 1814.  John worked as a freeman Berens River (1820-1821) at York Factory.

James? Ballindine was born 1802 North West, census 1838 Red River.

Jane Ballendie, Metis, b-1802 daughter John Ballendine and Jane Metis.

Gilbert Beriault, Metis b-1802, son Joseph Beriault and Marianne Beaupre; married 1835, Suzanne Blondin (Blondeau), Metis b-1816 N.W.T. daughter Louis Blondin (Blondeau) and Marie Louise Laframboise Metis.

Duluth, birth George Bonga, Metis, died 1884 daughter Pierre Bonga (Mukdaweos) Negro, born 1780's and an Ojibwa woman of Lake Superior; married two Ojibwa women. 

Marguerite Bonneau, Metis, b-1802 Red River des Metis daughter Jean Baptiste Bonneau, b-1752 and Louise Native; married Pierre Boyer, b-1786.

Pierre Boyer, Metis, b-1786 married Marguerite Bonneau, b-1802 Red River des Metis daughter Jean Baptiste Bonneau, b-1752, died 1842 Red River and Louise Native, b-1760.

Marguerite Bonneau, Metis, b-1802, Red River des Metis, daughter Jean Baptiste Bonneau b-1752, died May 26, 1842 St. Francois Xavier Red River and Louise a Native woman, b-1760; married Pierre Boyer, b-1786; married Pierre Boyer, b-1786..

Antoine Bonneau, b-1803, died January 25, 1844 Red River, son Jean Baptiste Bonneau, b-1752 and Louise Native, b-1760; married Angelique Delorme, Metis, b-1800, Pembina daughter Francoise Delorme, b-1767 Canada and Charlotte aka Madeleine La-Santeuse, b-1775.

Pierre Boyer, b-1786, married Marguerite Bonneau, Metis, b-1802, Red River des Metis daughter Jean Baptiste Bonneau, b-1752, died 1842, Red River and Louise Native, b-1760

Joseph Brown, b-1787, married 1802 N.W.T. Elizabeth Metis.

(II)-Duncan Campbell, Metis born before 1802 Upper Mississippi District son (I)-John Archibald Campbell (1775-1808) and Ninse a Dakota woman; married about 1815 Therese a Dakota Woman

(III)-Charles Chaboillez (1736-1808) is the appointed storekeeper for the British Indian Department at St. Joseph Island from 1802 to 1807, after which he retired to Montreal.

Josephite DeJairiut born 1802 Red River des Metis Settlement daughter Jean Baptiste DeJairliut (DeJauliot), living St. Boniface, Red River 1870.

John A Drew, born before 1780, is trading the Lake Superior area from 1802 to 1817.  He was given land at the Chegoigen Rapids at the 1836 Treaty.

Joseph Duchene La Prairie or Mushkedewinn (Prairie Man) is at Clam Lake (Burnett County, Wisconsin from 1802 to 1805.

New Brunswick House, Moose District, birth (II)-Caroline Gladman, Metis b-1802 daughter  (I)-George Gladman (1765-1821) and Mary More (Moar) an Indian woman from Moose Factory (1774-1858)

Peter Grant (1764-1848) of Sandy Lake (des Sables) a partner of the North West Company is assigned to the Sandy Lake post on the Mississippi.

Charles Hess of Pennsylvania is at Pembina (North Dakota) died 1820 on the Minnesota River.  He married an Ojibwa/Cree woman.

Alexander Henry the younger, Metis (1764-1814) took the daughter of Beau Pere the Buffalo as his Country Wife.  

Michel Kinville aka Qurnneville Metis d-1812, in 1802 he left the Great Lakes Region on the Illinois River to St. Charles with wife and child, likely Francois Michel Kinville Metis b-1790 and baptized this year.   In 1803-1811 he went up the Missouri River as a free trader to settle among the Flatheads.  In 1811, September 24 he was in charge of a wooden canoe with 9 men to meet up with Finan McDonald.  In 1812 Kinville and Michel Bourdeaux on the plains were killed by the Peigan (Blackfoot).  Michel Kinville appears to have had one wife, “an Indian woman of the Cau Nation,” and two children,
     François Michel Quenneville aka Kinville Metis b-1790 Great Lakes Region
     Marie Kinville Metis

John Knott was born 1802 North West, living St. Andrews, Red River 1870.

Francis La Croix, Ottawa Metis, b-1802 Mackinac, mother a L'Arbre Croch Woman, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.

Alexis Laframboise arrived at Mackinac with wife Madeline Adhemar and her sister, Angelique Adhemar.  The girls opened a school, but shortly returned to Montreal due to the sudden death of Alexis.

Pierre Larocque, b-1786, Canada son Jacques Michel Larocque and Agathe Poirier; married 1802 Red River des Metis, Marguerite, Metis

Manuel Lisa (1772-1826) a Spaniard of St. Louis is granted a monopoly for fur trade with the Osage Indians and established a trading post in Osage Country that is west of St. Louis.

Charles McKenzie aka MacKenzie (1778-1855) employed NWC (1802-1821)

(II)-Thomas Moar Metis b-1802 Nemiskan Lake son (I)-Andrew Moar (1764-1767) and Indian/Metis woman, joined HBC (1812-1874) Eastman & Rupert's River, married unknown
    (III)-Elizabeth Moar Metis  married Bouchard 
    (II)-Thomas Moar Metis apprentice 1844

Nicolas Morris, Pawnee Metis, b-1802 Sault Ste Marie son Morris and Pawnee Woman, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.  Rejected as father is white and mother is Pawnee.

Mary Ann Morrisette, b-1802 Red River des Metis married Jacque Morrisette, Metis b-1793 Red River des Metis, a hunter. 

(II)-William Oman Sr. Metis (1802-1867) son (I)-James Omand aka Oman (1796-1850) and (II)-Jane Brown Metis daughter (I)-Joseph Brown (1772-1818) and Elizabeth Indian d-1818, joined HBC (1821-1867) Fort Churchill, wife and children bapt 1856
    (III)-Margaret Oman Metis married 1852 Churchill William Gibeault Metis (1826-1886) born York Factory
    (III)-Anne Oman (Omand) Metis (1833-1912) married (I)-William Robert Smith (1795/97-1869)
    (III)-Maria (Margaret) Oman Metis married 1855 George McPherson Metis (1814-1891)
    (III)-Jane Oman Metis
    (III)-James Oman Metis
    (III)-George Oman Metis

Albany, Birth, (II)-Faith Prince, Metis daughter (I)-Mark Prince b-1761 and Indian woman.

Joseph Etienne Porlier born February 9, 1729/30 Montreal married 1802 likely Maumee Bay, Lake Erie, Ohio an  Indian girl.

Angelique Racette, Metis, b-1803 daughter Charles Racette b-1766 North West Territories married about 1802, Josephte (Francoise) Sauteuse a Chippewa Native b-1780, North West Territories; 1st. married George McPherson, 2nd marriage February 22, 1830, St. Boniface, Red River, Joseph Adam.

(I)-Richard Story Robins Sr. (1779-1807) joined HBC (1802-1807) Moose Factory, married (II)-Elizabeth Thomas Metis daughter (I)-John Thomas (1751-1822) and Margaret Indian d-1813, Elizabeth epouse James Russell b-1784
    (II)-Richard Story Robins Metis Jr.

Red Lake Albany, birth (II)-Margaret Sutherland, Metis (1802-1876) daughter (I)-John Southerland, with HBC (1778-1813) and Indian girl; married (I)-Richard Hardisty (1792-1865)

(II)-Margaret Swain, Metis, born April 2, 1802, bapt 1826 died November 28, 1870, daughter (I)-James Swain Sr. b-1775, and Native woman; married 1817, (I)-Donald Gunn Sr., (1797-1878), Scotland.

Red River des Metis Settlement Region, birth Adolphe Trottier Trotchie Metis born about 1802 son Andre Trottier b-1757 Montreal and Louise Chippewa Indian.

(III)-Louise Versailles, Metis, b-1802, son (II)-Luois Bourquin dit Versailles, b-1743 and Magdelaine Montagnaise Sauvage; married 1823 Jean Baptiste Jolibois. 

The London Committee of the Hudson Bay Company suggested to York Factory that they did not care to clothe their servants wives.

York Factory, for the first time, have thrown caution to the wind, informing London of the existence of their country wives and children despite Company policy.

Many Nor'westers believe that the stupidity of the Montreal Scots are driving the North West Company into ruin.  In a few years the working capital of Sir Alexander MacKenzie's 'XY' Company is nearly equal to the North West Company.  'XY' only had two hundred and fifty men in the field, mostly former North West Company men, compared with (I)-Simon McTavish (1750-1804) of the North West Company's one thousand and fifty eight.  'XY', however, had the cream of the crop and is producing nearly as much fur as the North West Company. On July 23 a grasshopper plague swept Red River, ravaging the potato crop.

(II)-Alexander Mackenzie (1763-1820) is busy this year in London trying to buy out the British Hudson Bay Company.   Nearly accepted is an offer of one hundred and three thousand pounds.  Peter Fiddler established Nottingham House for the British Hudson Bay Company.  Peter Fiddler the Chief Surveyor, while at Oxford House, reported that the Indian maps convey much information, whereas European documents fail.  "XY' Company clerk La Mothe, out of Island Fort, shot and killed North West Company man James King over furs being traded with the natives.  His trial in the east resulted in his release, as Canada had no jurisdiction in the North West Territories (Indian Territories).  No one wanted to improve the British Hudson Bay Company's position by suggesting their involvement.  The Canada Jurisdiction Act, as a result of this trial, appointed Civil Magistrates and Justices of the Peace for the North West Territories.

The North West Company divided the North West into administrative Departments, namely Nipigon Lake, Lac de la Pluie, Lake Winnipeg, Red River and Assiniboine, Fort Dauphin, Saskatchewan, English River, Upper Athabasca and Athabasca.  Departments overlapped each other. 

Several Canadian Nor'wester named Justices of the Peace included:  (II)-Duncan McGillivray, Metis (1770-1808), brother of (II)-William Mcgillivray (1764-1825) and nephew to (I)-Simon McTavish (1750-1804);  and Sir (II)-Alexander MacKenzie (1763-1820), William's younger brother.  No appointment of British Hudson Bay Company men occurred, as they are Non-Canadian in nature.

Augustin Cadotte, this year, is working out of Tekogonaibick.  

The Tlingit's attacked the Russian Amerian Company trading post in Sitka Sound.

February:   (I)-Peter Fidler (1769-1822) welcomed the XY Company men into his fort for mutual support against the Fall Indians (Gros Venture). The XY Company men had hidden a cannon the previous season, but were unable to find it when needed. (I)-Peter Fidler also had not maintained his own cannon, and six weeks later put it into working order.

February 15:  Married Charles Roy to Marie-Louise MINET, Amerindien from Red River.

February 21:   A band of Gros Ventre attempted to force their way into the XY Company post at Chesterfield House but were expelled.  They then killed four Iroquois traders of the North West Company.

March 3:   The North West Company sent a 12 man party to Fort Chesterfield, near present day Empress, Alberta, and the Gros Ventre killed the two Canadians (Metis) and ten Iroquois traders.  Others suggest it was 14 Iroquois and 2 Canadians of the N.W.C., and that they were killed on the Bow River, southern Alberta.

April 21:   Fort Chesterfield is abandoned by all parties, as the Gros Ventre and Crow people were planning to capture the Fort. It would remain abandoned until 1805.

May 18:  Britain declared war on France.

June 9:  Michilimackinac, baptism Joseph Flamand, Metis, born 1796 son Jean Baptiste Flamand and Marie a Savage Woman 

September 20: Augustine Cadotte of NWC was sent to the Pembina Mountains, to trade with the Crees and Assiniboines and remained there through the winter

October:   Francois Houle of Sault St. Louis is hired by the N.W.C. for Rainy Lake.

October 4:   Hugh McGillies replaced Archibald Norman McLeod joined NWC 1796 who is going to Athabasca with Alexander Henry the younger, Metis (1764-1814) and J. Clarke.  

November 26:  Nottingham House, birth (II)-Sally (Sara) Fidler, Metis, daughter (I)-Peter Fidler (1769-1822) and Mary a Swampy Cree Indian (1771-1826); married 1824 William Williams, b-1800..



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