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Rock paper scissors.jpg
A chart showing how the three game elements interact.
Genre(s) Hand game
Players 2
Setup time None
Playing time Instant
Random chance Med-High
Skill(s) required Luck, psychology

Rock-paper-scissors is a hand game played by two people. The game is also known as roshambo, or by other orderings of the three items (with "stone" sometimes substituting for "rock").[1][2]

The game is often used as a choosing method in a way similar to coin flipping, drawing straws, or throwing dice. Unlike truly random selection methods, however, rock-paper-scissors can be played with a degree of skill by recognizing and exploiting non-random behavior in opponents.[3]



[edit] Game play

Each of the three basic hand-signs (from left to right: rock, paper, and scissors) beats one of the other two, and loses to the other.

The players usually count aloud to four, or speak the name of the game (e.g. "Rock Paper Scissors!" or "Ro Sham Bo!"), each time either raising one hand in a fist and swinging it down on the count or holding it behind. On the third count (saying, "Shoot!" or "Go!" "Scissors!" or "Bo!"), the players change their hands into one of three gestures, which they then "throw" by extending it towards their opponent. Variations include a version where players use only three counts before throwing their gesture (thus throwing on the count of "Scissors!" or "Bo!", or a version where they shake their hands three times before "throwing." The gestures are (in the 3 gesture version):

  • Rock, represented by a clenched fist.
  • Scissors, represented by two fingers extended and separated, sometimes coming together
  • Paper, represented by an open hand, with the fingers extended and touching, in order to represent a sheet of paper (horizontal).

The objective is to select a gesture which defeats that of the opponent. Gestures are resolved as follows:

  • Rock blunts or breaks scissors: rock defeats scissors.
  • Scissors cut paper: scissors defeats paper.
  • Paper covers, sands or captures rock: paper defeats rock.

If both players choose the same gesture, the game is tied and the players throw again.

[edit] History

[edit] Asian origin

According to Dr. Sepp Linhart [4] a hand-game using gestures in the particular form of the three conflicting elements of rock, paper and scissors - the most commonly-found modern version of the game - originated in the Edo to Meiji period in late 19th century Japan.[5]

Similar hand-games probably developed much earlier in China. References to a game using hand-gestures are found in the Chinese Ming Dynasty (1368 –1644) writer Xie Zhaozhi's (谢肇淛) book Wuzazu (五杂组). This contains the first known mention of such games, though the rules are not described. Such hand-games date back to the time of the Chinese Han Dynasty (206 BC – 220 AD),.[6] In China it was called shoushiling (手势令). Li Rihua's (李日华) book Note of Liuyanzhai (六砚斋笔记) also refers to this game, calling it shoushiling (手势令), huozhitou (豁指头), or huoquan (豁拳).

By the 18th century such hand-games had become popular in Japan, where the most common name for them was Janken (じゃんけん), or sometimes Ishiken (石拳), Jaiken (じゃいけん), or Injan (いんじゃん) etc.. The origin or derivation of the name is unknown. Ken ( ken?) is a fist in Japanese and Jan-ken-pon is categorized as a "ken (fist) games" (拳遊び ken asobi?). Janken is believed to have been based on older ken games, san sukumi ken being one of them(三すくみ拳, san sukumi means the freezing aspects of a snake, frog, and slug with fear). San sukumi ken has existed in Japan since ancient times.[7] Ken games began to increase in popularity in the middle of the 19th century.

By the early 20th century Rock-paper-scissors had spread beyond Asia, especially through increased Japanese contact with the west.[8] Its English-language name is therefore taken from a translation of the names of the three Japanese hand-gestures for rock, paper and scissors[9]:elsewhere in Asia the open-palm gesture represents "cloth" rather than "paper".[10] The shape of the scissors is also adopted from the Japanese style.[9]

[edit] Spread beyond Asia

The game seems to have arrived in Europe in the early 20th century. In 1924, after the Rome correspondent of a British paper described the traditional Italian hand-game of morra, which has some similarities to rock-paper-scissors,[11] a brief correspondence began on the subject. One contributor described a game he had seen played in Mediterranean ports, called 'zot' or 'zhot', which was clearly identical with the modern "Rock-paper-scissors".[12] A second correspondent then replied that what he called 'zhot' was evidently the game of Jan-ken-pon she had often seen played throughout Japan.[13] Although at this date the game appears to have been new enough to British readers to require explanation, the appearance by 1927 of a popular thriller with the title Scissors Cut Paper,[14] followed by Stone Blunts Scissors(1929), suggests it quickly became popular.

A New York Times article of 1932 on the Tokyo rush hour describes the rules of the game for the benefit of American readers, suggesting it was not at that time widely known in the U.S.A.[15]

[edit] Strategies

It is easy to see that it is impossible to gain an advantage over a truly random opponent. However, by exploiting the weaknesses of nonrandom opponents, it is possible to gain a significant advantage.[16] Indeed, human players tend to be nonrandom.[17] As such, there have been programming competitions for algorithms that play rock-paper-scissors.[16][18][19]

In tournament play, some players employ tactics to confuse or trick the other player into making an illegal move, resulting in a loss. One such tactic is to shout the name of one move before throwing another, in order to misdirect and confuse their opponent. During tournaments, players often prepare their sequence of three gestures prior to the tournament's commencement.[20][21]

[edit] Algorithms

As a consequence of rock-paper-scissors programming contests, many strong algorithms have emerged.[16][18][19] For example, Iocaine Powder, which won the First International RoShamBo Programming Competition in 1999,[18] uses a heuristically designed compilation of strategies.[22] For each strategy it employs, it also has six metastrategies which defeat second-guessing, triple-guessing, as well as second-guessing the opponent, and so on. The optimal strategy or metastrategy is chosen based on past performance. The main strategies it employs are history matching, frequency analysis, and random guessing. Its strongest strategy, history matching, searches for a sequence in the past that matches the last few moves in order to predict the next move of the algorithm. In frequency analysis, the program simply identifies the most frequently played move. The random guess is a fallback method that is used to prevent a devastating loss in the event that the other strategies fail. More than ten years later, the top performing strategies on an ongoing rock-paper-scissors programming competition similarly use metastrategies.[23] However, there have been some innovations, such as using multiple history matching schemes that each match a different aspect of the history - for example, the opponent's moves, the program's own moves, or a combination of both.[23] There have also been other algorithms based on Markov chains.[24]

Researchers at the University of Tokyo have created a robot hand that has a 100% winning rate playing rock-paper-scissors. Using a high-speed camera, the robot recognizes within one millisecond which shape the human hand is making, then produces the corresponding winning shape.[25]

[edit] Instances of use in real-life scenarios

[edit] American case

In 2006, American federal judge Gregory Presnell from the Middle District of Florida ordered opposing sides in a lengthy court case to settle a trivial (but lengthily debated) point over the appropriate place for a deposition using the game of rock-paper-scissors.[26] The ruling in Avista Management v. Wausau Underwriters stated:

Upon consideration of the Motion – the latest in a series of Gordian knots that the parties have been unable to untangle without enlisting the assistance of the federal courts – it is ORDERED that said Motion is DENIED. Instead, the Court will fashion a new form of alternative dispute resolution, to wit: at 4:00 P.M. on Friday, June 30, 2006, counsel shall convene at a neutral site agreeable to both parties. If counsel cannot agree on a neutral site, they shall meet on the front steps of the Sam M. Gibbons U.S. Courthouse, 801 North Florida Ave., Tampa, Florida 33602. Each lawyer shall be entitled to be accompanied by one paralegal who shall act as an attendant and witness. At that time and location, counsel shall engage in one game of "rock, paper, scissors." The winner of this engagement shall be entitled to select the location for the 30(b)(6) deposition to be held somewhere in Hillsborough County during the period July 11–12, 2006.[27]

The public release of this judicial order, widely circulated among area lawyers[citation needed], was seemingly intended to shame the respective law firms regarding their litigation conduct by settling the dispute in a farcical manner.

[edit] Auction house rock-paper-scissors match

Large Trees Under the Jas de Bouffan sold for $11,776,000 at Christie's.[28]

When Takashi Hashiyama, CEO of a Japanese television equipment manufacturer, decided to auction off the collection of impressionist paintings owned by his corporation, including works by Cézanne, Picasso, and van Gogh, he contacted two leading auction houses, Christie's International and Sotheby's Holdings, seeking their proposals on how they would bring the collection to the market as well as how they would maximize the profits from the sale. Both firms made elaborate proposals, but neither was persuasive enough to get Hashiyama’s business. Unwilling to split up the collection into separate auctions, Hashiyama asked the firms to decide between themselves who would hold the auction, which included Cézanne's Large Trees Under the Jas de Bouffan, worth $12–16 million.

The houses were unable to reach a decision. Hashiyama told the two firms to play rock-paper-scissors to decide who would get the rights to the auction, explaining that "it probably looks strange to others, but I believe this is the best way to decide between two things which are equally good".

The auction houses had a weekend to come up with a choice of move. Christie's went to the 11-year-old twin daughters of the international director of Christie's Impressionist and Modern Art Department Nicholas Maclean, who suggested "scissors" because "Everybody expects you to choose 'rock'." Sotheby's said that they treated it as a game of chance and had no particular strategy for the game, but went with "paper".[29]

Christie's won the match and sold the $20 million collection, with millions of dollars of commission for the auction house.

[edit] Rock-paper-scissors in video games

In many real-time strategy, first-person shooter, and role-playing video games, it is common for a group of possible weapons or unit types to interact in a rock-paper-scissors style, where each selection is strong against a particular choice, but weak against another, emulating the cycles in real world warfare (such as cavalry being strong against archers, archers being strong against pikemen, and pikemen being strong against cavalry[30]). Such game mechanics can make a game somewhat self-balancing, and prevent gameplay from being overwhelmed by a single dominant strategy.[30]

Many card-based video games in Japan use the rock-paper-scissors system as their core fighting system, with the winner of each round being able to carry out their designated attack. Other games use simple variants of rock-paper-scissors as subgames.

[edit] Rock-paper-scissors analogs in nature

[edit] Lizard mating strategies

The common side-blotched lizard (Uta stansburiana) exhibits a rock-paper-scissors pattern in its mating strategies. Of its three color types of males, "orange beats blue, blue beats yellow, and yellow beats orange" in competition for females, which is similar to the rules of rock-paper-scissors.[31][32]

[edit] Coliform bacteria

Some bacteria also exhibit a rock-paper-scissors dynamic when they engage in antibiotic production. The theory for this finding was demonstrated by computer simulation and in the laboratory by Benjamin Kerr, working at Stanford University with Brendan Bohannan.[33] The antibiotics in question are the bacteriocins - more specifically, colicins produced by Escherichia coli. Biologist Benjamin C. Kirkup, Jr. further demonstrated that the colicins were active as E. coli compete with each other in the intestines of mice, and that the rock-paper-scissors dynamics allowed for the continued competition among strains: antibiotic-producers defeat antibiotic-sensitives; antibiotic-resisters multiply and withstand and out-compete the antibiotic-producers, letting antibiotic-sensitives multiply and out-compete others; until antibiotic-producers multiply again.[34]

[edit] Tournaments

Two players at the 4th UK Rock Paper Scissors Championships, 2010.

[edit] World Rock Paper Scissors Society sanctioned tournaments

Starting in 2002, the World Rock Paper Scissors Society standardized a set of rules for international play[35] and has overseen annual International World Championships. These open, competitive championships have been widely attended by players from around the world and have attracted widespread international media attention.[36][37][38][39][40] WRPS events are noted for their large cash prizes, elaborate staging, and colorful competitors.[41] In 2004, the championships were broadcast on the U.S. television network Fox Sports Net, with the winner being Lee Rammage, who went on to compete in at least one subsequent championship.[42][43]

[edit] UK Rock Paper Scissors Championships

The 6th UK Rock Paper Scissors Championships [45] will take place at Crosse Keys Pub, London on Saturday 13 October 2012 with 250 competitors.[45]

The 5th UK Rock Paper Scissors Championships took place in London on Saturday 22 October 2011.[46] The event was open to 128 individual competitors. There was also a team contest for 16 teams. The 2011 singles tournament was won by Max Deeley and the team contest won by The Big Faces (Andrew Bladon, Jamie Burland, Tom Wilkinson and Captain Joe Kenny).[47]

The 4th UK Championships took place on 13 November 2010, at the Durell Arms in West London. Paul Lewis from Woking beat Ed Blake in the final and collected the £100 first prize and UK title. Richard Daynes Appreciation Society won the team event. 80 competitors took part in the main contest and 10 entries in the team contest.

The 3rd UK Championships took place on 9 June 2009, in Exeter, Devon. Nick Hemley, from Woking, Surrey, won the contest just beating Chris Grimwood.[48]

The 1st UK Championship took place on 13 July 2007, and then again on 14 July 2008, in Rhayader, Powys. Steve Frost of Powys is the current holder of this WRPS sanctioned event.

[edit] USARPS Tournaments

USA Rock Paper Scissors League is a US-based rock-paper-scissors league. It is sponsored by Bud Light. Leo Bryan Pacis is the commissioner of the USARPS.

In April 2006, the inaugural USARPS Championship was held in Las Vegas. Following months of regional qualifying tournaments held across the US, 257 players were flown to Las Vegas for a single-elimination tournament at the House of Blues where the winner received $50,000. The tournament was shown on the A&E Network on 12June 2006.

The $50,000 2007 USARPS Tournament took place at the Las Vegas Mandalay Bay in May 2007.

In 2008, Sean "Wicked Fingers" Sears beat out 300 other contestants and walked out of the Mandalay Bay Hotel & Casino with $50,000 after defeating Julie "Bulldog" Crossley in the finals.

The inaugural Budweiser International Rock, Paper, Scissors Federation Championship was held in Beijing, China after the close of the 2008 Summer Olympic Games at Club Bud. A Belfast man won the competition.[49] Sean finished 3rd.

[edit] Team Olimpik Rock Paper Scissors Championships 2012

The international tournament was held in London 2012, to coincide with the lesser known Olympic events in Stratford. UK Champions Team GB (Andrew Bladon, Jamie Burland, Tom Wilkinson and Stephen Preston) went in as overwhelming favorites, but after a "domestic incident" team captain and UK Team Champion Joe Kenny was forced to pull out, allowing Stephen Preston to fill his gloves. Great Britain came a respectable third to achieve the Bronze Medal, while the crowd favorite Vatican City got the Silver and Lapland A took the prestigious Gold Medal. British team captain Tom Wilkinson commented "after a 4-0 whitewash of hot favorites Vatican City we thought we had it. A simple lapse of concentration lost it for us, but we are happy with our bronze medal. We'll come back from this and look to take the title back again next year. The support was immense, and we are thankful of everyone who came out to support us".[50]

[edit] National XtremeRPS Competition 2007-2008

The XtremeRPS National Competition is a US nationwide RPS competition with Preliminary Qualifying contests that started in January 2007 and ended in May 2008, followed by regional finals in June and July 2008. The national finals were to be held in Des Moines, Iowa in August 2008, with a chance to win up to $5,000.

[edit] Guinness Book of World Records

On 9 July 2010, over 6500 attendees of the LIFE 2010 Conference in Louisville, Kentucky, participated in the largest tournament of Rock-Paper-Scissors ever.

[edit] World Series of Rock Paper Scissors

Former Celebrity Poker Showdown host and USARPS Head Referee[51] Phil Gordon has hosted an annual $500 World Series of Rock Paper Scissors event in conjunction with the World Series of Poker since 2005.[52] The winner of the WSORPS receives an entry into the WSOP Main Event. The event is an annual fundraiser for the "Cancer Research and Prevention Foundation" via Gordon's charity Bad Beat on Cancer. Poker player Annie Duke won the Second Annual World Series of Rock Paper Scissors.[53][54] The tournament is taped by ESPN and highlights are covered during "The Nuts" section of ESPN's annual WSOP broadcast.[55][56][57] 2009 was the fifth year of the tournament.

[edit] Variations

Players have developed numerous cultural and personal variations on the game, from simply playing the same game with different objects, to expanding into more weapons and rules.

In Japan, a "strip-poker" variant of Rock-paper-scissors is known as 野球拳 (Yakyuken). The loser of each round removes an article of clothing. The game is a minor part of porn culture in Japan, and other Asian countries after the influence of TV variety shows and Soft On Demand.

[edit] Additional weapons

As long as the number of moves is an odd number and that each move defeats exactly half of the other moves while being defeated by the other half, any combination of moves will function as a game. For example, 7, 9, 11, 15, 25 and 101 weapon versions exist[58] Adding new gestures has the effect of reducing the odds of a tie, while increasing the complexity of the game. The probability of a tie in a balanced, odd-weapon game can be calculated based on the number of weapons n as 1/n, so the probability of a tie is 1/3 in RPS, 1/5 in RPSLS and 1/101 in RPS101.

It is possible to design balanced RPS games with an even number of weapons, although this requires the introduction of ties. For instance, dynamite could be introduced such that dynamite defeats rock and paper defeats dynamite while rock and paper tie, as do scissors and dynamite. The probability of a tie in a balanced, even-weapon RPS game with n weapons (assuming each weapon ties with itself and only one other weapon, while defeating half of the remaining weapons and being beaten by the other half) can be calculated as 2/n, which essentially doubles the probability of a tie in comparison with odd-weapon RPS games.

An often used example of a four-weapon game adds "dynamite" as a trump. Dynamite, expressed as the extended index finger or thumb, always defeats rock, and is defeated by scissors. Using dynamite generally implies that dynamite burns paper, but some claim that paper would smother the fuse. The fourth option of dynamite changes each gesture's odds of winning. For instance, scissors' odds improve from 33% to 50% while rock's odds decrease from 33% to 25%. Dynamite can be used to cheat by quickly raising or lowering the thumb on the downstroke once the opponent's play is recognized. Some organized rock-paper-scissors contests never use dynamite, for the reasons above.[59]

Similarly, the French game "pierre, papier, ciseaux, puits" (stone, paper, scissors, well) is unbalanced; both the rock and scissors fall in the well and lose to it, while paper covers both rock and well. This means two "weapons", well and paper, can defeat two moves, while the last two weapons can only defeat one of the other three choices. This version is also played in some areas of Germany and can be balanced by adding "the bull" (which drinks the well empty, eats the paper, but gets stabbed by the scissors, and is crushed by the rock). The well is made by forming a circle with the thumb and index finger to show the opening of a stone well; the bull is made by making a fist but extending the little finger and index finger to show the bull's horns. In theory, "unbalanced" games are less random but more psychological, more closely resembling real world conflicts. However, games of this sort are popular more for novelty than for exploring such ideas.

Rock Paper Scissors Lizard Spock resolution diagram
Rock Paper Scissors Lizard Spock gestures
Resolution and gesture diagrams for Rock, Paper, Scissors, Lizard, Spock

One popular five-weapon expansion is "Rock-paper-scissors-lizard-Spock", invented by Sam Kass and Karen Bryla,[60] which adds "Spock" and "lizard" to the standard three choices. "Spock" is signified with the Star Trek Vulcan salute, while "lizard" is shown by forming the hand into a sock-puppet-like mouth. Spock smashes scissors and vaporizes rock; he is poisoned by lizard and disproven by paper. Lizard poisons Spock and eats paper; it is crushed by rock and decapitated by scissors. This variant was mentioned in a 2005 article of The Times[61] and was later the subject of an episode of the American sitcom The Big Bang Theory in 2008.[62]

The majority of such proposed generalizations are isomorphic to a simple game of modulo arithmetic, where half the differences are wins for player one. For instance, rock-paper-scissors-lizard-spock may be modeled as a game in which each player picks a number from one to five. Subtract the number chosen by player two from the number chosen by player one modulo 5. Player one is the victor if the difference is one or two, and player two is the victor if the difference is three or four. If the difference is zero, the game is a tie.

[edit] See also

[edit] References

  1. ^ "Game Basics". Retrieved 2009-12-05. 
  2. ^ St. John, Kelly (2003-03-19). "Ready, set ... Roshambo! Contestants vie for $1,000 purse in Rock, Scissors, Paper contest". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved 2007-11-20. 
  3. ^ Fisher, Len (2008). Rock, paper, scissors: game theory in everyday life. Basic Books. p. 94. ISBN 978-0-465-00938-1. 
  4. ^ Vienna University, specialist in Japanese studies
  5. ^ Linhart, Sepp (1998). Ken no bunkashi. Tokyo: shoten Kadokawa. ISBN 4-04-702103-2. 
  6. ^ Moore, Michael E.; Sward, Jennifer (2006). Introduction to the game industry. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall. p. 535. ISBN 978-0-13-168743-1. 
  7. ^ "じゃんけん-について". 
  8. ^ Ogawa, Dennis M. (1978). Jan Ken Po: The World of Hawaii's Japanese Americans. Hawaii: University of Hawaii Press. 
  9. ^ a b 長田須磨・須山名保子共編 (1977.4). 『奄美方言分類辞典』上巻. Tokyo: Kasama shoin. ISBN ASIN B000J8V5WU. 
  10. ^ In Korea the name of the game, Kai Bai Bo, or Kawi Bawi Bo, translates as "scissors, rock, cloth". [1]
  11. ^ 'You stand opposite each other, each with the right hand clenched, the elbow slightly bent,in the attitude of boxers. The right hands are raised and lowered twice; at the third time the arm and hand are flung outwards, and any number of fingers (or none at all, if you like) are released. Simultaneously each cries out a number - any number up to ten - which he hopes will be the total of the fingers which he has himself exposed, plus the number shown by his opponent. "Ten" is "morra", and it is proof of the antiquity of the game that nobody has been able to tell me why.' The Times. 26 February 1924. p. 15. 
  12. ^ 'In this game the closed fist represents a stone, the open hand with fingers outstretched paper, and the closed fist with two fingers outstretched scissors...The players stand facing one another, and commence playing simultaneously by raising and lowering the right arm three times rapidly, coming to rest with the fist in any of the three above-mentioned positions. If you keep your fist closed and your opponent flings open his hand then you lose, as paper wraps up stones, and so on.' The Times. 1 March 1924. p. 15.  Letter to the editor, from Paymaster Lieutenant G.L.P. Garwood, R.N.
  13. ^ The Times. 6 March 1924. p. 8. : Letter to the editor, from Miss F.C.Pringle
  14. ^ Gerard Fairlie, Scissors Cuts Paper, Hodder and Stoughton, (1927)
  15. ^ New York Times, May 22, 1932 - The New York Times Magazine, article by Marion May Dilts: "COMMUTING WITH TOKYO'S SUBURBANITES; Their Morning Ritual Is Characteristically Japanese, but In Their Mode of Travel There Is Western Technique"
  16. ^ a b c Knoll, Byron. "Rock Paper Scissors Programming Competition". Retrieved 2011-06-15. 
  17. ^ Dance, Gabriel and Jackson, Tom (2010-10-07). "Rock-Paper-Scissors: You vs. the Computer". The New York Times. Retrieved 2011-06-15. 
  18. ^ a b c "First International RoShamBo Programming Competition". 1999-10-01. Retrieved 2011-06-15. 
  19. ^ a b "Second International RoShamBo Programming Competition". 2001-03-20. Retrieved 2011-06-15. 
  20. ^ Steve Vockrodt, "Student rivals throw down at rock, paper, scissors tournament", Lawrence Journal-World, 8 April 2007. Retrieved 13 April 2007.
  21. ^ Michael Y. Park, "Rock, Paper, Scissors, the Sport", Fox News, 20 March 2006. Retrieved 13 April 2007.
  22. ^ Egnor, Dan (1999-10-01). "Iocaine Powder Explained". Retrieved 2011-06-15. 
  23. ^ a b dllu (2011-06-14). "Rock Paper Scissors Programming Competition entry: DNA werfer 5 L500". Retrieved 2011-06-15. 
  24. ^ rfw (2011-05-22). "Rock Paper Scissors Programming Competition entry: sixth-order markov chain". Retrieved 2011-06-15. 
  25. ^ Rock-paper-scissors robot wins every time – video | Technology |
  26. ^ "Exasperated judge resorts to child's game". The Seattle Times. Associated Press. 2006-06-26. Retrieved 2006-08-20. 
  27. ^ Presnell, Gregory (June 7, 2006). "Order of the court: Avista Management vs. Wausau Underwriters Insurance Co". Retrieved 2006-06-08. 
  28. ^ Art/Auctions logo, Impressionist & Modern Art, Christie's, 7 pm, May 4, 2005, Sale 1514.
  29. ^ Vogel, Carol (April 29, 2005). "Rock, Paper, Payoff: Child's Play Wins Auction House an Art Sale". The New York Times. 
  30. ^ a b Egenfeldt-Nielsen, Simon; Jonas Heide Smith, Susana Pajares Tosca (2008). Understanding video games: the essential introduction. Taylor & Francis. p. 103. ISBN 0-415-97721-5. 
  31. ^ Sinervo, Barry (2001-02-20). "The rock-paper-scissors game and the evolution of alternative male strategies". Retrieved 2006-08-20. 
  32. ^ Barry Sinervo on the 7th Avenue Project Radio Show. "The Games Lizards Play". 
  33. ^ Nature. 2002 Jul 11;418(6894):171-4
  34. ^ Nature. 2004 Mar 25;428(6981):412-4
  35. ^ "Game Basics". World Rock Paper Scissors Society. Retrieved 2006-08-20. 
  36. ^ Hruby, Patrick (2004-12-10). "Fists fly in game of strategy". The Washington Times. Retrieved 2006-08-20. 
  37. ^ "2003 World Rock Paper Scissors Championship". All Things Considered (National Public Radio). 2003-10-24. Retrieved 2006-08-20. 
  38. ^ "Rock, Paper, Scissors A Sport?". CBS News. 2003-10-23. Retrieved 2006-08-20. 
  39. ^ "Rock Paper Scissors contest being held". USA Today. Associated Press. 2003-10-27. Retrieved 2006-08-20. 
  40. ^ Park, Michael Y. (2006-03-20). "Rock, Paper, Scissors, the Sport". Fox News.,2933,188380,00.html. Retrieved 2006-08-20. 
  41. ^ "Gallery". World RPS society. 2005-11-13. Archived from the original on 2006-03-15. Retrieved 2006-08-20. 
  42. ^ Crick, Jennifer (2005-06-13). "HAND JIVE - 13 June 2005". Retrieved 2009-06-05. 
  43. ^ "World RPS Society - 2004 Champion Lee Rammage crushes a pair of Scissors". 2005-11-13. Retrieved 2009-06-05. [dead link]
  44. ^ Rock Paper Scissors crowns a queen as its champ - Weird News -
  45. ^ a b Home
  46. ^ Home
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  48. ^ "Pub hosts UK 'rock' championship". BBC News. 28 May 2009. Retrieved 2009-05-28. 
  49. ^ "Belfast man tops world at rock, paper, scissors | Irish Examiner". 2008-08-27. Retrieved 2009-06-05. 
  50. ^ Team Olimpik RPS
  51. ^ "Master Rosh's Analysis of the Final Match". USARPS Leagues. USARPS. 2005-06-28. Retrieved 2009-07-31. 
  52. ^ Friess, Steven (2007-05-14). "Las Vegas's latest game: Rock, paper, scissors". NY Times. Retrieved 2009-07-23. 
  53. ^ Levitt, Steven (2006-07-26). "Annie Duke Wins 2nd Annual World Series of Poker's Rock, Paper, Scissors Tournament". New York Times. Retrieved 2009-07-24. 
  54. ^ "Where's Annie?". 2006-08-05. Retrieved 2009-07-24. 
  55. ^ Caldwell, John (2005-06-15). "The REAL championship at the World Series of Poker". Poker News. Retrieved 2009-07-24. 
  56. ^ "WSOP Schedule Whiplash". Poker Pages. 2005-06-14. Retrieved 2009-07-24. 
  57. ^ Craig, Michael. "EXCLUSIVE COVERAGE: Roshambo - The Rematch". Pokerworks. Retrieved 2009-07-21. 
  58. ^ "RPSx". 
  59. ^ World RPS Society (2002). elephant kills human human kills ant and ant crawls up elephant nose and kills it "The Myth of Dynamite Exposed". elephant kills human human kills ant and ant crawls up elephant nose and kills it. Retrieved 2007-11-09. 
  60. ^ Sam Kass. "Original Rock-Paper-Scissors-Spock-Lizard Page". Retrieved 2009-03-11. 
  61. ^ "... and paper scissors". London: The Times Online. 11 June 2005. Retrieved 2009-06-09. 
  62. ^ Lorre, Chuck. "The Big Bang Theory Video - Rock, Paper, Scissors, Lizard, Spock -" (video). CBS. Retrieved 4 September 2012. 
  • Alonzo, Suzanne H. & Sinervo, Barry (2001): Mate choice games, context-dependent good genes, and genetic cycles in the side-blotched lizard, Uta stansburiana. Behavioral Ecology Sociobiology 49 (2-3): 176–186. doi:10.1007/s002650000265 (HTML abstract)
  • Culin, Stewart (1895): Korean Games, With Notes on the Corresponding Games at China and Japan. (evidence of nonexistence of rock-paper-scissors in the West)
  • Gomme, Alice Bertha (1894, 1898): The traditional games of England, Scotland, and Ireland, 2 vols. (more evidence of nonexistence of rock-paper-scissors in the West)
  • Opie, Iona & Opie, Peter (1969): Children's Games in Street and Playground Oxford University Press, London. (Details some variants on rock-paper-scissors such as 'Man, Earwig, Elephant' in Indonesia, and presents evidence for the existence of 'finger throwing games' in Egypt as early as 2000 B.C.)
  • Sinervo, Barry (2001): Runaway social games, genetic cycles driven by alternative male and female strategies, and the origin of morphs. Genetica 112-113(1): 417-434. doi:10.1023/A:1013360426789 (HTML abstract)
  • Sinervo, Barry & Clobert, Jean (2003): Morphs, Dispersal Behavior, Genetic Similarity, and the Evolution of Cooperation. Science 300(5627): 1949-1951. doi:10.1126/science.1083109 (HTML abstract) Supporting Online Material
  • Sinervo, Barry & Lively, C. M. (1996): The Rock-Paper-Scissors Game and the evolution of alternative male strategies. Nature 380: 240-243. doi:10.1038/380240a0 (HTML abstract)
  • Sinervo, Barry & Zamudio, K. R. (2001): The Evolution of Alternative Reproductive Strategies: Fitness Differential, Heritability, and Genetic Correlation Between the Sexes. Journal of Heredity 92(2): 198-205. PDF fulltext
  • Sogawa, Tsuneo (2000): Janken. Monthly Sinica 11(5). [Article in Japanese]
  • Walker, Douglas & Walker, Graham (2004): The Official Rock Paper Scissors Strategy Guide. Fireside. (strategy, tips and culture from the World Rock Paper Scissors Society).

[edit] External links

Year World Champion Country
2002 Peter Lovering Canada
2003 Rob Krueger Canada
2004 Lee Rammage Canada
2005 Andrew Bergel Canada
2006 Bob Cooper United Kingdom
2007 Andrea Farina[44] USA
2008 Monica Martinez Canada
2009 Jess the Best UK
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