PSY 202, Fall 2003
Multiple Choice: Circle the letter corresponding to the single most correct answer (@ 1 point).
[NOTE: Answers to the multiple choice questions can be found at the end of this test.]
1. If the sound of an electric can opener causes a cat to salivate because the can opener has been associated with the presentation of food, the cat's salivation to the sound of the can opener is a(n)
A. conditioned response C. conditioned stimulus
B. unconditioned response D. unconditioned stimulus
2. After Pavlov had conditioned a dog to salivate to a tone, he repeatedly sounded the tone without presenting the food. As a result, ______________ occurred.
A. generalization C. latent learning
B. negative reinforcement D. extinction
3. Long after being bitten by a stray dog, Alonzo found that his fear of dogs seemed to have disappeared. To his surprise, however when he was recently confronted by a stray dog, he experienced a sudden twinge of anxiety. This sudden anxiety best illustrates:
A. delayed reinforcement C. spontaneous recovery
B. latent learning D. shaping
4. An allergy attack triggered by the sight of plastic flowers best illustrates the process of:
A. generalization C. delayed reinforcement
B. latent learning D. the overjustification effect
5. In order to teach an animal to perform a complex sequence of behaviors, animal trainers are most likely to use a procedure known as
A. classical conditioning C. latent learning
B. delayed reinforcement D. shaping
6. The more often Matthew is scolded following a temper tantrum, the more frequently he loses his temper. In this case, the scolding serves as a ____________ for Matthew's temper tantrums.
A. negative reinforcer C. positive reinforcer
B. conditioned stimulus D. punishment
7. Escape from an aversive stimulus is a ___________ reinforcer.
A. positive C. secondary
B. negative D. partial
8. A small-town radio disc jockey frequently announces how much money is currently in a jackpot. Every day several residents, randomly selected, are called and asked to identify the amount, and thereby win it. Those who keep track of the jackpot amount are most likely to be reinforced on a ________________ schedule.
A. fixed-ratio C. variable-ratio
B. variable-interval D. fixed-interval
9. Promising people rewards for doing what they already enjoy doing is likely to produce:
A. overlearning C. latent learning
B. the overjustification effect D. spontaneous recovery
10. Which is a correct pairing:
A. Skinner – Classical conditioning C. Bandura – Observational learning
B. Pavlov – Operant conditioning D. All of the above
11. Short-term memory could best be characterized as ______________ memory
A. iconic C. flashbulb
B. working D. implicit
12. Students often remember more information from a course that spans an entire semester than from a course that is completed in an intensive three-week learning period. This best illustrates the importance of:
A. chunking C. implicit memory
B. the serial position effect D. the spacing effect
13. You should be sure to review the middle of a chapter even more than the beginning or end because of:
A. spacing effect C. iconic memory principle
B. serial position effect D. chunking
14. Rephrasing text material in your own words is an effective way to facilitate:
A. semantic encoding C. mood-congruent memory
B. automatic processing D. implicit memory
15. For a fraction of a second after the lightning flash disappeared, Ileana retained a vivid mental image of its ragged edges. Her experience most clearly illustrates the nature of ___________ memory.
A. iconic C. echoic
B. flashbulb D. implicit
16. The increased efficiency of neural circuitry that contributes to memory storage is known as:
A. chunking C. automatic processing
B. the next-in-line D. long-term potentiation
17. Many people retain their classically conditioned fears without any conscious recollection of how or when those fears were learned. This best illustrates _____________ memory.
A. implicit C. sensory
B. short-term D. state-dependent
18. Fill-in-the-blank test questions measure ___________; matching concepts with their definitions measures __________.
A. recognition; relearning C. recall; relearning
B. recall; recognition D. relearning; recall
19. After studying biology all afternoon, Alonzo is having difficulty remembering details of the organic chemistry material that he memorized that morning. Alonzo's difficulty best illustrates:
A. the self-reference effect C. the spacing effect
B. retroactive interference D. proactive interference
20. An attorney's use of misleading questions may distort a court witness's recall of a previously observed crime. This best illustrates:
A. state-dependent memory C. proactive interference
B. the misinformation effect D. the nest-in-line effect
21. Most people take less time to identify a cow as a mammal than a mouse as a mammal because a cow more closely resembles their ____________ of a mammal.
A. prototype C. heuristic
B. mental set D. algorithm
22. Myra has such a low level of self-esteem that she is typically on the lookout for critical comments about her appearance and behavior. Myra's behavior best illustrates the dangers of:
A. confirmation bias C. functional fixedness
B. the framing effect D. algorithms
23. Raul and Sophia were having a picnic when it started to rain. They did not think of using their big plastic tablecloth as a temporary rain shelter and so were drenched within minutes. Their oversight best illustrates:
A. the availability heuristic C. belief perseverance
B. confirmation bias D. functional fixedness
24. Because Ken is 6'6" , people often mistakenly assume that he must be a member of his college's basketball team. This mistaken judgment best illustrates the impact o:
A. confirmation bias C. the representativeness heuristic
B. the belief perseverance phenomenon D. the availability heuristic
25. Many people perceive carjackings as more serious threats to their lives than failing to use seatbelts because carjackings are so much more memorable. This best illustrates the importance of:
A. belief perseverance C. confirmation bias
B. the representativeness heuristic D. the availability heuristic
26. Many people overestimate how long they actually remain awake during restless nights because their moments of wakefulness are easier to recall than their moment of sleep. This best illustrates the impact of
A. the representativeness heuristic C. the availability heuristic
B. confirmation bias D. overconfidence
27. Although Steve was certain that he answered between 70 and 80 items correctly on his biology test, he actually was right on only 55 items. Steve's misjudgment of his test performance illustrates:
A. confirmation bias C. the framing effect
B. the belief perseverance phenomenon D. overconfidence
28. Ojinska sold many more raffle tickets when she told potential buyers they had a 10 percent chance of winning a prize than when she told them they had a 90 percent chance of not winning. This best illustrates:
A. the representativeness heuristic C. confirmation bias
B. the belief perseverance phenomenon D. the framing effect
29. We often consider illogical conclusions that happen to agree with our personal opinions to be logically valid. This is known as:
A. the availability heuristic C. belief bias
B. linguistic relativity D. functional fixedness
30. Despite overwhelming and highly publicized evidence that Senator McEwan was guilty of serious political corruption and misconduct, many who had supported her in past elections remained convinced of her political integrity. Their reaction best illustrates:
A. functional fixedness
B. the representativeness heuristic
C. belief perseverance
D. the availability heuristic
Write answers to these questions in your blue-book.
KEY TERMS. Select as many as you know. For each term, supply a precise definition including the context and a clear example. For each name, identify the context and 2 other pieces of information. Partial answers will be worth partial credit, but silly guesses will result in a loss of up to 3 points (@ +/- 3 points).
Elaborative Rehearsal Negative Transfer of Training
Conditioned Reinforcer Vicarious Punishment
Incubation Effect Attention Filter
Negative Reinforcement Watson & Raynor
SHORT ANSWER. Select and answer 1. (@ 6 points)
1. Diagram the 4 important parts of the memory system. Then describe what happened in each part as you learned the term "iconic". Include technical terms where applicable.
2. For each behavior below, which specific learning procedure would be best to use? And precisely how would you use that procedure to teach the behavior?
Teaching a cat to be afraid of your kitchen counter tops.
Teaching a roommate (human) to play checkers.
Teaching a child to say "please".
Teaching yourself to gag at the sight/smell of soda.
ANSWERS TO MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS:
2. D 3. C 4.
5. D 6. C
8. B 9. B 10. C 11. B 12. D 13. B 14. A
15. A 16. D 17. A 18. B 19. B 20. B 21. A
22. A 23. D 24. C 25. D 26. C 27. D 28. D
29. C 30. C